Sunday, 15 September 2013

Conversation rules in early childhood:



 Introduction
Being able to communicate fluently is a significant part of being human: It allows a person to learn, build relationships and succeed in life. Children begin to communicate from the time they are born, and from there they learn the vast rules that make up speech and language. It is important to keep the lines of communication open with them and to be aware of signs pointing to developmental delays.
Communication (from Latin "communis", meaning to share) is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or a group of person.
Meaning of Communication
  1. The imparting or exchanging of information or news.
  2. A letter or message containing such information or news.
In general Communication is a means of connecting people or places
Objectives:
After reading this unit students will be able to
·         Explain communication.
·         Explain conversational changes at different stages in children.
·         Describe the early childhood teacher’s duties.
Definition:
Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning.
Important Milestones in Language Development:
Children go through a number of distinct stages of language development. The earliest form of language involves making babbling sounds, which eventually progresses to the single word stage. The following are just some of the developmental milestones that children usually reach as they develop language and communication skills.

From Birth to 3 Months:

During the first three months of life, most infants are beginning to

·         Listen to sounds and respond by looking at the speaker

  • Tell the difference between parents and other people's voices
  • Communicate by crying, laughing, and babbling
  • Begin trying to imitate sounds

From 3 to 6 Months :

From the age of three to six months, most infants are beginning to:
  • Imitate simple vowel and consonant sounds
  • Exchange facial expressions with caregivers, such as smiling when a parent smiles
  • Listen to the conversations of others

From 6 to 9 Months:

Between the ages of six to nine months, most children begin to:
  • Make repetitive babbling sounds
  • Use vocal and nonverbal signals to communicate with others
  • Utilize gestures in association with simple words, such as waving and saying "bye"

From 9 to 12 Months:

. Children between the ages of nine and 12 months can typically:
  • Understand the names of many people and objects
  • Use body language and facial expressions to show how they feel
  • Halt their actions when someone says "No"
  • Say a few simple words

From 1 to 2 Years:

. At one year of age, most children start to:
  • Understand basic commands such as "Eat your cereal"
  • Use "mine" to indicate possession of objects
  • Have a vocabulary that includes several words that are spoken clearly

From 2 to 3 Years:

During this period of development, children also:    
·         Are understood by family members
·         Can describe what happened during the day
From 3to 4 Year:
Abilities that begin to emerge include:
  • Can understand and use sentences that utilize time ("I'm going to the zoo tomorrow.")
  • Learn and sing songs
From 4 to 5 Years:
Between the ages of four and five, children become increasingly skilled at conversing. Other communication milestones that are achieved during this time period include:
  • Enjoys listening to longer stories and can remember them with some accuracy
  • Uses sentences that average around four to five words
  • Asks questions about how, when, and why things happen
Strategies for language development:
  1. Child-oriented strategies – These strategies encourage children to initiate and engage in conversational interactions so that educators can respond in ways that encourage the child’s continued engagement in the interaction.
  2. Interaction-promoting strategies – These strategies encourage extended individual and group conversations between adults and children.
  3. Language-modeling strategies – These strategies expand the child’s oral language skills and facilitate the development of decontextualized (or abstract) language.

Duties and Tasks of Early childhood teachers:

Early childhood teachers may perform the following tasks:
·         promote language development and self-confidence through storytelling, drama, music and discussions
·         Encourage children to question .
·         Observe children to evaluate and record their progress .
·         Promote social interaction with other children.
·          Comfort children who are hurt or distressed.

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