Monday, 23 September 2013

School Management



Introduction to Administration & Management
 The word administration is composed of two words “ad” means to and “ministaire” means to serve, so as one word it gives meaning to serve. In French, ‘minister’ is the one who takes the responsibility. In Urdu, Persian and Arabic administration means a sequence, order, concentration and attention for the utilization of resources. Robbins is of the opinion that administration is getting the things from others.
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in group efficiently accomplish selected aims. S. Robbins defines management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling all the activities within an organization in pursuit of pre-defined objectives. Management is a broader term as compare to administration.
The Definition of Management Needs To Be Expanded:
  • As managers people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, motivating (leading) and controlling.
  • Management applies to any kind of organization.
  • It applies to managers at all organizational levels.
  • The aim of managers is the same to create surplus.
  • Managing is concerned with productivity, which implies effectiveness and efficiency.

The Functions of Management
  1. Planning
Selecting missions and objectives as well as the actions to achieve them,, which requires decision making.
  1. Organizing
Establishing and intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization..
  1. Motivating (Leading)
Influence people, so that they will contribute to organizational and group goals.
  1. Controlling
Measuring and correcting individual and organizational performance to ensure that events conform to plans.
Managerial Functions at Different Organizational Levels:
Top Level: are planning, organizing and controlling.
Middle Level: they are equally sharing all functions.
First Line Supervisors: are only leading.
Managerial Skills and the Organizational Hierarchy
  • Technical Skill (To know one’s job)
  • Human Skill (Interaction, Communication, Behavior, Team Building)
  • Conceptual  Skill (Understanding the organization as a whole)
  • Design Skills (Analysis and problem solving ability)
Noting that principles of management are flexible, not absolute, and must be usable regardless of changing and special conditions, Fayol listed fourteen, based on his experience. They are summarized in the perspective.
1.      Division of work. This is the specialization that economists consider necessary for efficiency in the use of labor. Fayol applies the principle to all kinds of work, managerial as well as technical.
2.      Authority & responsibility. Here Fayol finds authority and responsibility to be related, with the latter arising from the former. He sees authority as a combination of official factors, deriving from the manager’ position and personal factors.
3.      Discipline. Seeing discipline as “respect for agreements which are directed at achieving obedience, application, energy, and the outward marks of respect. Fayol declares that discipline requires good superiors at all levels.
4.      Unity of command. This means that employees should receive orders from one superior only.
5.      Unity of direction. According to this principle, each group of actives with the same objective must have one head and one plan.
6.      Subordination of individual to general interest. This is self explanatory when the two are found to differ, management must reconcile them.
7.      Remuneration. Remuneration and methods of payment should be fair and afford the maximum possible satisfaction to employees and employer.
8.      Centralization. Without using the term “Centralization of authority.” Fayol refers to the extent to which authority is concentrated or dispersed. Individual circumstances will determine the degree that will give the best overall yield.
9.      Scalar chain. Fayol thinks of this as a chain of superiors from the highest to the lowest ranks, which, while not to be departed from needlessly, should be short circuited when to follow it scrupulously would be detrimental.
10.  Order. Breaking this into material and social order, Fayol follows the simple adage of a place for everything and everything in its place.
11.  Equity. Loyalty and devotion should be elicited from personnel by a combination of kindliness and justice on the part of managers when dealing with subordinators.
12.  Stability of tenure. Finding unnecessary turnover to be both the cause and the effect of bad management, Fayol points out its dangers and costs.
13.  Initiative. Initiative is conceived of as the thinking out and execution of a plan. Since it is one of the keenest satisfactions for an intelligent man to experience.
14.  Esprit de corps. This is principle that “in union there is strength” as well as an extension of the principle of unity of command, emphasizing the need for teamwork and the importance of communication in obtaining it.
Principles of school Management
The following are the principals of effective school management.
  1. Principle of objectivity: this principle demands that the activities are focused on the predetermined objectives of the school programmes etc.
  2. Principle of Comprehensiveness: this principle demands that a wide variety of activities are offered to the students.
a)      These activities should fulfill the individual as well as group needs.
b)      Activities should also provide for the balanced development of the students personalities.
c)      Right and duties should also be made known to the studens through the activities.
d)     Training and working in collaboration should be made a regular feature for the students.
  1. Principle of economy: the principle focuses on the facts that:
a)      The work force be utilized according to the capacity, potential and liking.
b)      The material sources should also be used to the optimum.
c)      The responsibilities need be entrusted according to the caliber and taste.
  1. Principle of co-operation and co-ordination
a)      School should be a place where the atmosphere of mutual consultation should prevail.
b)      The responsibilities should be discharged with zeal vigor and drive for the betterment of the institution.
c)      Student should be provided with a chance to share some of the responsibilities with their teachers.
  1. Principle of simplicity
a)      The administrative procedure are made simple, practicable and understandable.
b)      The responsibility and authority should work together.
c)      The teachers must be exposed to novel situations to polish their leadership qualities.
d)     School should have a close relation with the society and parents.
  1. Principle of modification
a)      The duties and responsibilities of the staff must be changed after intervals.
b)      The latest innovations and trends be incorporated at the proper time.

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