Tuesday, 23 June 2015

Maslow’s Theory of Motivation


Abraham Maslow was a foremost Psychologist. He developed a theory (Human Needs) in which he identified seven vital human needs according to level of urgency or exigency.
 These needs according to the Maslow are:
1.     Physiological Needs:
These are the biological or survival needs of man. They are the most basic needs that control the other needs. Until these needs are fulfilled or satisfied, man will not be able to go to the next level. Examples of these needs are the desire to eat food when hungry, drink water when thirsty or the need for rest, sex, air or to excrete unwanted materials from the body systems. After these survivals needs have been adequately taken care, they become less important and one moves to the next which is the desire for security and safety.
2.     Safety and Security Needs:
 Human beings require safety and protection from danger or external aggressors. After one has successfully dealt with physiological needs, it is desirable to cater for psychological needs. At this point, Man will be thinking of where to live and efforts will be made to keep him/herself from impending dangers, threats or hazards. The hallmark of these needs is the quest by an individual to seek for conducive or peaceful abode. For example, the desire of war victims to migrate from their original country to become refugees in another country is the need for safety and security. Also, a chicken that quickly hibernates under its mother on sighting an eagle did so because of its desire for safety.
3.     Love and Belongingness Needs:
 This involves the aspiration of man to establish a cordial relationship with others. It is the need of man to love and be loved. At this level of need, people will like to extend their hands of fellowship or comradeship to their friends, mates, co-workers or neighbours. They equally will expect that such gestures be reciprocated by others. Onyehalu (1988) believes that this need is manifested in our affiliations and friendships.
4.     Achievement Needs:
 Achievement needs are divided into two. These are the need to achieve success and the need to avoid failure or setback. The need to attain success or freedom drives man to go extra miles. This need motivates an individual to emit a behaviour that will make him/her command respect from others.
5.     Self-Esteem Needs:
 These are the things we desire in order that our ego will be boosted. After the individual has been accorded respect or recognition by others, the next thing for him/her is to start seeking for the things that will make him/her enjoy considerable influence from others. The ability of someone to fulfil this condition makes him/her feel superior and self-confident. Inability to fulfil this need, makes a person feel dejected or inferior.
6.     Aesthetic Needs:
 These needs include the desire of people to pursue or admire beautiful things; their desire for beautiful and expensive cars, houses, materials, gorgeous and expensive dresses and beautiful surroundings with well trimmed and maintained flowers.
7.     Self-Actualization Needs:

 When a person has successfully achieved or gained the most basic needs or wants, then such an individual will want to get a rare opportunity. It is the time when a person will like to distinguish him/herself, by seeking for power or extra-ordinary achievement. At this point person is said to have reached the peak of his potentials.

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