Wednesday, 17 June 2015

Needs for research in education

 The initial task before a researcher would be just to enlist the basic concepts , their meanings ,scope , implications. In the field of education, he has to search for the theory and principles of his discipline. Research scholars in educational field should aim at upholding and re-interpreting the lofty traditions of the system.
The educational system encounters various problems. However , the most convenient way to classify the problems on the basis of various dimensions of education like curriculum , syllabi , Aims and objectives , organization , administration ,equipment, methods of teaching , guidance , testing examination , evaluation etc. education is interdisciplinary subject. Its foundations are laid by subjects like Philosophy, Sociology , Psychology , Physics ,Chemistry , Mathematics , etc. The vast area of education can be sub-divided into various specific , independent and demarcated sub – areas for the benefits of the researcher. Hence , the need of educational  research can be discussed under various sub-headings.
1 Research need in the philosophy of education
                  Education has been called the dynamic side of philosophy or an active aspects of philosophical belief. Its theory and practice can never attain perfection unless it based on the sound footing of a systematic philosophy. In the field of Philosophy of Education , there is need for working on problems such as :
·         To formulate the educational aims pertaining to the societal needs.
·         To chart out the various possible meaning of a concept.
·         To define the sense in which it is use in different theories within a single branch of inquiry and also among the different branches of inquiry.
·         To study the implications of their sense in various educational theories.
·         To examine educational generalizations, assumptions and theories borrowed from the behavioral science.
·         To undertake an examination of the various value-approaches and thus formulate an adequate value-basis for the scheme of education.
·         To accommodate in the curricula the new and incoming knowledge , especially when one can not discard the past one. The solution of the problem requires a proper perspective and sense of proportion which is a scientific study alone can yield.
2       Research need in the sociology of education
                  Sociological factors have a great impact on educational thought and practice. The study of all such factors is of great practical significance. Some important problems of research related to sociology of education are the study of population explosion and changes, demographic trends and the impact of political and social pressures on an educational system. The research needed in the sociology of education include the following:
·         To formulate the educational aims and policies regarding the size of the educational stages, state-wise or district-wise educational planning , optimum size of a school or a class, the media of instruction, etc.
·         To study the agent of social changes in the teacher’s role, areas of socio-cultural lag in school education , factors, curbing school teacher’s freedom, teacher’s morale , obstacles in the inculcation of democratic, and international spirit in students , patterns of leadership training in school, vocationalization of school education , sociology of class teaching, the of radio and TV on students, etc.
·         Some other areas would be: attitude , hobbies  of the students and teachers , co curricular activities , wastage and stagnation at the school stage.
3   Research need in educational psychology
                   Educational psychology deals with the psychology of the teaching-learning process. The immediate need in this area is to increase efficiency in teaching and learning rather than to delineate the features of the learner which facilitates or retard learning. Research has to help the teachers to improve their effectiveness in the classroom.
·         To increase efficiency in teaching and learning rather than to delineate the features of learner which facilitate or retard learning?
·         To study why there is such poor efforts and such low output.
·         To study the social forces that impinges on the students.
·         To find out how many years a student takes to complete the primary and the secondary school course.
·         To study the special subjects particularly in reading, handwriting, spelling and the like.
·         To judge the effectiveness of teaching tool for improving educational attainment.
·         To study creative thinking so that it is helpful to teacher and students to play their part adequately and effectively in social and economic progress.
·         To find out the best means to help the student to do self-evaluation.
·         To study the education, development and adjustment of exceptional children.
4    Research need in the history of education
   The need for historical research in education can be viewed from two angles. One, the limitations of the work already done in the field of history of education and its requirements. Two, some important current socio- economic-cum-educational problems and objectives which is need immediate attention.
·         To study the evolution of rigid caste structure and its role in educational development.
·         To throw light on educational policy of different kings in different parts of ancient and towards different communities.
·         To study the educational history of post-independence period, which presents the failures and success on the educational front.
·         To study the present day educational problems historically rather than studying the past periods in isolation.
·         To understand the relationship between the growth of education as agriculture.
5.   Research need in comparative education
Political , cultural , socio-economic and geographical conditions have an impact on the educational systems of different countries. Comparative study of educational system of various countries is a fruitful area of research. Comparative education deals with the comparison of different models of education across the world. The research needs in this area are:
·         To make a horizontal and vertical study of democratic decentralization in various countries of the world.
·         To study the administrative pattern of departments of education in various countries and various states.
·         To study the role of voluntary agencies in providing education in various countries and states.
·         Examination reforms and certain other progressive measures have been introduced all over the world. It is time when a comparative of their success is also made.
·         A comparative study of the problems and procedures of textbook production, the extrinsic and intrinsic qualities of the textbooks produced at various places.
·         To study the inter-state or even inter-district educational phenomenon in relation to an organization, finance, curriculum, availability of teachers, school buildings, etc.
·         To study the system of education as result of geographical, cultural and other factors.
·         To prepare case studies of some institutions in similar cultural and environmental settings.
            6       Research need in curriculum
  The research in curriculum requires focus on the following issues:
·         What are the changing needs in the orientation of the curriculum?
·         How it can be diversified to meet the individual differences of pupils in view of their stages of development and range of interests and aptitudes?
·         How can it be related to the needs of the developing nation and the manpower requirements of the country?
·         How can it remain flexible and dynamic in content?
·         What are the principles of making the curriculum balanced in theory and practice or in compulsory and elective courses?
           7       Research need in the financing of education
·         Detailed surveys of growth of educational expenditure during the post-independence period in the states; proportion of public expenditure on education and comparison with proportion spent on other services, comparative study of teachers, the contribution of the local bodies and local communities, role of private agencies, school deficits, state procedures of financing education, pattern expenditure in urban and ruler areas, capital costs, etc.
·         To find out unit costs of buildings, furniture, equipment,  health services, direction and inspection, mid-day meals, etc.
·         To study the trends of financing education in five year plans and their effects on educational development.
·         There is need for survey of student’s aid and concessions like scholarship, fee concessions, free books, loans, travel subsidies, etc.
·         To assess the out-of-school expenditure in rural and urban schools and institutions for boys and girls at various stages of education.
      8 Research need in the economics of educational field
     Economics of education is a rewarding area of educational research. The major objective of research endeavor in this area is to apply effectively the relevant economic analysis to the field of education with a view to raise the efficiency of the educational system at different levels and to identify the role of education an social and economic development of the country. The research needs in economics of education are:
·         To raise the efficiency of the educational system at various levels.
·         To identify the indirect role of education in social and economic development of the country and future roles with varying rate of growth.
·         To prepare a short-run and long-run prospective plan for educational development in the country, integrating educational plan with the general economic planning.
·         To apply financial prudence of the economist in matters of raising revenues and incurring expenditures for educational development.
            10 Research need in educational measurement and evaluation
                             Educational measurement is primarily concerned with the quantification of certain educational outcomes in the form of acquisition of certain attitudes, behavior and skills. We need valid and reliable tools for measuring such educational outcomes. These include psychological test, observational techniques, rating scales and other non-testing devices. Other needs include the following:
·         To construct and standardize achievement tests for various subjects at different levels.
·         To study problem relating to marks, pupil placement, diagnosis, remedial programs, etc.
·         To train teachers to make and use of tests.
·         To make more reliable norms.
·         Tests for better prediction or success.
·         Tool for assessing various personality factors.
·         Comparative studies of objective type and objective based test.
·         Comparative study of open book type and supervised type examinations.
·         Comparative study of periodic tests, class room test, terminal test.
   11  Research need in test development
·         Objective selection tests for college administration are likely to be in demand as educational opportunities are progressively made equal for all.
·         Individual scale of intelligence- child and adult.
·         Group test of intelligence and aptitude.
·         Selection tests for admissions to professional courses.
·         Personnel selection course.
           12 Research need in educational and vocational field
·         To study the factors which lead to success in various professions, jobs in industry, business, government service and so on.
·         Greater validity of internal records of periodic examination over the annual examination for guidance purposes.
·         Cross-validation of various tests.
·         Survey of guidance services in educational institutions.

·         Determining guidance-mindedness of different functionaries in education. 

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