Wednesday, 15 February 2017

Common ground between sociological theories

S.
No.
Name of the  theory
What does it state?
Key concepts
Its weaknesses
1
Structural
Functionalism
Sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
Consensus,
social order,
structure and
function in
society.
Emphasis on stability and order
while neglecting conflict and changes which so vital in any society
2
Social conflict
theory
Sees society in a framework of class conflicts and focuses on the struggle for scarce resources by different groups in a given society
Class conflict;
alienation;
competition;
domination
For its overemphasis on inequality and division, for neglecting the fact
of how shared values and interdependence generate unity
among members of society; it is also criticized for its explicit political goals.
3
Symbolic
Interactionism
Stresses the analysis of how our behaviors depend on how we define others and ourselves. It concentrates on
process, rather than structure, and keeps the individual actor at the center.
Symbols;
processes;
interaction;
meaning
Too much emphasis on microlevel
analysis; neglect of larger social processes
4
Feminism
Feminist sociology focuses on the particular disadvantages, including
oppression and exploitation faced by women in society
Women;
gender;
exploitation;
male
supremacy
Some extreme views such as
radical feminism seem unrealistic
5
Social
Exchange
Theory
Focuses on the costs and  benefits which people obtain
in social interaction, including money, goods, and status.
It is based on the principle that
people always act to maximize benefit.



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6
Rational
choice theory
Assumes that individuals will
operate in rational way and will seek to benefit themselves in the life choices they make


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7
Structuralism
Denies any basis for humans being active, since human consciousness is no longer seen as the basis of meaning in language
Underlying
structures;
language
Views societies as static and do not help very much in explaining variation among societies; treats culture as a given order and fails to explain the adaptive dimensions of culture.
8
Poststructuralism
Argues that humans cannot arrive anything they can confidently call the (universal) truth. There is no link between the words (language) ideas, and the real world


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9
Postmodernism
Argues power has become decentralized and fragmented in Contemporary societies
Modernity;
postmodernity;
subjective
reality
Denial of objective, sociological
knowledge

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