Thursday, 2 November 2017

Elements of Culture

Cultures are among the elements that constitute the core of a society or social group. The most important are: symbols, values, customs and language .
·        Symbol
Symbol is the central part of the culture. Symbol refers to something that people
attach importance and which they use to communicate with others. More specifically, the symbols are words, objects, actions, sounds or pictures that have something else instead of themselves to represent. Symbolic thinking is unique and critical for people and cultures. It is the ability of people to learn a thing or event any phrase that give meaning and to understand and appreciate. No obvious natural or necessary connection between a symbol and what it symbolizes.
·        Language
Language, specifically defined as a system of verbal and often written symbols terms how these symbols can be strung together to create a more complex definition, is uniquely and owned by the people; It is an important part of culture. Culture includes language and by language, culture is communicated and transmitted. If no language it would be impossible to create, develop and transmit culture to the next generation.
 ·        Values
These values ​​are essential elements of the non-material culture. They can be defined as abstract and general guidelines for our lives, decisions, goals, choices and actions. They shared ideas of a group or society as to what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable, acceptable or unacceptable, ethical or unethical, and others, about one thing. These are general road map for our lives. These values ​​are shared and learned in the group. They can be positive or negative. For example, honesty, truth - telling, respect for others, hospitality, helping people in need, etc are positive values. Examples of negative values ​​is theft, obscene, lack of respect, deception, lies, retrenchment, etc. The Hippocratic Oath dictates the medical profession which practitioners should include, holds the secrets of patients them what the help they can do no harm to the patient volunteers, etc. this is an example of a positive value.
The values ​​are dynamic, meaning they change over time. They are static, meaning that they tend to remain without significant changes. The amount will vary also, meaning they vary from place to place and culture. Some values ​​are universal, because bio-psychological unity among people everywhere and at all times. In other words, it is from the major similarities to humans, nature and desires. For example, unlike for murder, concepts and skills in pain management, sanitation, personal hygiene, cosmetics, incest taboo, etc.
·        Standards
Standards are also key elements of the culture. They are implicit principle for social life, relationships and interactions. Standards are detailed and specific rules for specific situations. They tell us how to do something, what to do, what not to do, when to do it, why to do it, etc. Standards are derived from the values ​​do. This means that for each specific criteria, there is an overall value that defines the content.Individuals can not act in accordance with the specified value of the group. Therefore, violation of norms and values ​​that differ from the default values ​​are common.
Social norms can be divided into two. The folkways and mores
o   More: important and stronger social standards of life, safety, welfare and security of the society or group or society. Violation and deviation from such standards, can cause severe reactions forming the group. The highest standards are considered the formal laws of a society or a group. Formal law is written and codified social norms. The other way of mores mentioned convention. Conventions established rules of conduct; they are generally accepted by society ideals. Treaties can also be considered as a written and signed agreement between countries that govern the behavior of individuals, groups and nations.
o   Folkways: Are developed by a group of people way of life. They are small and detailed instructions, traditions or rules governing the day-to-day life that help us effectively and properly functioning as members of a group. It may violate such kind of criteria is not a severe punishment contrast infringing behavior. They are less morally binding. In other words, folkways are behaving and doing things appropriate way. Examples include table etiquette, rules dressing, walking, talking, etc. Include Following folkways usually happens automatically, without any national analysis and is based on the custom passed down from generation to generation. They are not enforced by law, but by informal social control. They are not to be in possession of important or mandatory and morals, or moral standards, and their offense is not severely punished as such. Folkways are even more binding, the people must act in accordance with accepted standards. Some exceptional behavior is considered eccentric behavior.Folkways variance with the laws and mores which they are designed, implemented and maintained by public opinion, or custom, while the law was established, designed, serviced and maintained by the political authority of the society.
Folkways in turn can be divided into two sub types: fashion and custom.
§  Fashion is a form of behavior, type folkways socially approved at some point, but subject to seasonal changes. Trailers combine alignment and compliance with the standards of a particular group.
§  Custom: Is folkway or form of social behavior has a long period of time remained, the traditional and well established to be in a society and received a degree of formal recognition. Custom is a pattern of action shared by most or all members of a society. Behavior is a personality trait, which, as is the custom group attribute. Fashion and practices can be distinguished in that while the custom changes slower pace, fashion changes at a faster pace.

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