Wednesday, 8 November 2017

Major Types Socialization

There are different ways of socialization; The main ones are: primary or childhood socialization, secondary socialization and maturity, de-socialization and re-socialization. Other minor forms of socialization are: anticipatory socialization and reverse socialization (Calhoun et al, 1994; Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Soroka, 1996 Macionis, 1997)
1. Top of Childhood Socialization
It is also called basic or early socialization. The terms "primary", "basic" or "early" all mean great importance to childhood socialization. Many of the personality makeup of individual forged during this period of life. Socialization at this stage of life is a milestone; without it, we would cease to be social creatures. The son of man is a biological creature or organism is transformed into a social being, especially in the early stages. Therefore, children must be socialized properly from birth to five years in particular, because they are basic and essential. A child who does not receive adequate socialization during this period will probably be a shortage in his / her social, moral, intellectual and personality development. Some grew development of anti-social attitudes, aspirations and skills.
2. Secondary or Adult Socialization
While socialization is a problem on offer for children and young people, it is a never ending process that continues in the future life. Secondary or adult socialization is required when an individual take on new roles, reorient themselves according to their social status and roles change, as in the beginning of married life. The socialization process at this stage can sometimes be severe. For instance, fresh graduates entering the world of work start their first job, there are many new features to be controlled. Intense adult socialization can happen to immigrants. When they go to other countries, you may need them the language, values, customs, and many other custom and folkways may prove really know the serious and difficult experience with economic difficulties. While it may be fairly stated that childhood socialization experience what kind of people we are, the challenge remains of socialization in late adolescence and adult stages. This is done so particularly in the context of the rapidly changing world of complex societies.
3. The rehabilitation and socialization
In the lives of individuals, and to pass through various stages and experiences, it is necessary reorganization and de-socialisation. Rehabilitation means the approval of adults with a radically different customs and life ways which are more or less completely different from the previous values. Reconstruction, the rapid and fundamental changes in adult life. The change can provide a Life way ask for a new one that is completely different from, and incompatible with the former. This happens too often asks adult life in modern society sharp transitions and changes. De-socialization usually precedes reconstruction. De-socialization refers to stripping individuals of their former lifestyle, beliefs, values ​​and attitudes so that they can perform other partially or completely new lifestyles, attitudes and values. Individuals have to leave their old values ​​and taking on a new part of the new social groups. De-socialization and re-socialization often takes place in what is called total institutions, comprehensive and often isolated from the community. They demand a thorough de-socialization of newcomers before they come after the full membership. Total institutions include: psychiatric hospitals, prisons, churches and other groups, and military units. In any case, the joining of the new institutions must first be de-socialized before they can be socialized again.
Reorganization may also mean socializing people back to their old values, according to their former way of life again, spending a relatively long time in the overall institution. This is because they might forget the most basic values ​​and practices of the first group or society. This form of rehabilitation can be regarded as reintegration, renew the help of former members of the community their memories of their past lifeways, skills, knowledge, etc.
4. anticipatory socialization
Anticipatory socialization refers to the process of adjustment and adaptation in which individuals try to learn and internalize the roles, values, attitudes and practices of social status or profession for which they are likely to be employed in the future. They do this in anticipation of the upcoming real socialization. It is a kind of rehearsal and preparation first have a sense of what it will look like new roles. However, anticipatory socialization is not appropriate when the nature and extent of life transition is complex. It can be extremely difficult to predict what will happen.
5. Reverse Socialization
Reverse socialization refers to the process of socialization, the dominant socializing people, such as parents, need to pass themselves to be socialized with people who like to socialize children. This idea seems to be associated with the fact that socialization is a two way street. It is the influence and pressure of socializees to induce directly or indirectly change the attitudes and behavior itself socializers. Reverse socialization, children, for example, can be made to socialize with their parents in a number of roles, skills and attitudes that are lacking in the latter.
7. Agents and Components Socialization
Agents of socialization are different groups of people and institutional structures that are responsible for training new members of society. Some of them can be formal, while others are informal. They will help individual members in all activities of their society.
There are three components socialization process. May socialize either a newborn child can be a new recruit in the army or police or a freshman at a college or a trainee medical service. On the other hand, there are socializers parents, peer group, community members, teachers or members of the church can be. Both socialize Socializer together and not in a vacuum but in a social environment plays a major role in the process of socialization. The foregoing some social environments socialization institutions. The most socializing agent is the family, peer relationships, school, neighbourhood (church), the mass media, etc. The institution of the family is generally considered the most important agents of socialization. In the process of socialization, the main contact between a child and his / her parents and siblings. The contacts are also between the child and guardian when the real parents are not available. Besides the parents, there are other agents of socialization (in modern society), such as day care centers, nursery and kindergarten as well as primary and secondary schools and universities. It seems to have taken the various agents of socialization partial functions of parents, especially in modern society, where women are leaving their traditional responsibilities from home by lure of work outside the home. The school is part of a conscious effort and a society to socialize children. Unlike parents and schools, peer groups play a very important role in the process of socialization. Sometimes peer pressure, whether positive or negative, can be as strong as the parent. The peer group can send existing social values ​​and the development of new and different culture of its own with special values. 
The mass media such as television, radio, films, videos, tapes, books, magazines and newspapers are also important means of socialization. The most important influence on children coming from the television, as studies show. The effects are both positive and negative. Negative effect appears to be greater for parents and other interested bodies to worry about how the television socializing children. For example, studies show that watching violence on television can encourage aggressive behavior in children.
8. Multiple and Conflicting Influence of Socialization
Until now, the idea of ​​socialization is presented appears biased towards structural functionalist view of society and socialization. Therefore, it would be useful to some ideas that can help add the balance of the image. A critical conceptualization of socialization, the contradictory and ambiguous origins and influences of socialization should be highlighted.
If we consider is a good example for students in the health sciences, it is in this context is important. An example might be alcohol and tobacco. Evidence shows that the consumption of tobacco and alcohol is rapidly increasing in the developing world. There are underlying and contradictory processes of socialization behind this phenomenon. The conflicting influences arise when on the one hand, families, schools and medical institutions warn young people not to consume these products; and on the other hand, global companies such products fully enter the battle in getting products to young people, through the attraction of television advertising.This example shows that the often conflicting, competing messages come from various sources of socialization. The various agents of socialization is not given the balance of power, control and dominance. International companies, vigorously promote the culture of consumerism depth using powerful global media tend to play a dominant role in influencing the attitudes and lifestyles of young people (Personal communication. Teketel Dr. Abebe, Addis Ababa University, Department of sociology and Anthropology)

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