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Monday, 27 November 2017

There are many different ways to do the same. For example, create a universal aspect of culture for a patient; but the way people vary patient care. There are many different ways to do the same. It's called cultural alternatives. In other words, cultural alternatives refers to two or more forms of behavior in a socially acceptable in a given situation. These alternatives give different reactions to the same situation or different techniques to achieve the same result. Cultural alternatives (also) the nature of the choices that allow for differences in ideas, habits and lifestyle. Modern industrialized society offers much more than cultural alternatives had many past societies.
On the other hand, cultural specialties refer to specific skills, training, knowledge, and others which are limited to a certain group or society. These are elements of culture that are shared by members of certain social groups, but which are not shared by the whole population. Cultural specialties cause behavioral differences between people, as opposed to cultural universals.

Cultural alternatives and cultural specialties

Although there are so many unique cultures and societies, there are some cultural practices that are universal. In the middle of the diversity of human cultural behavior, there are some common characteristics that are found in virtually all societies. Cultural universality refers to the practices, beliefs, values, norms, material things, etc., which is observed in all societies in the world, or different social groups within of a society.
 For example, every culture has a word that complex language. All societies have recognized some kind of family system in which there are values ​​associated with the care of children. The institution of marriage, religious rituals, and all rights are cultural universals. All societies have some form of incest prohibition. Anthropologist determined more different cultural universals include state of the art, dance, body decorations, games, gift giving, jokes and the rules of hygiene. Cultural universals condition the behavior of similarity between individuals in a given society or society. They found no difference in the actions and behavior, lifestyle, attitude, behavior, etc can be made.

Describe cultural universals?

Ethnocentrism
We often tend to judge other cultures than our own. It is not logically possible and proper to underestimate or overestimate or judge other cultures by a cultural norm. Ethnocentrism general attitude to take their own culture and way of life, the best and the center of all and also with regard to other ethnic groups and cultures as inferior, evil, full of errors, etc. It is tendency to add to their own cultural values ​​apply to the assessment of the behavior and beliefs of people raised in different cultures. It is a cultural universal. Everywhere people think that famous statement, opinion, and habits such as true, correct, ethical and moral. They see different behavior as strange or wild.
Cultural relativism
Every society has its own culture, which is more or less unique. Every culture has its own unique pattern of behavior that seem strange to people from different cultural backgrounds. We do not understand the habits and beliefs from the wider culture to which they belong. A culture should be examined on its own meaning and value. Cultural relativism describes a situation where there is an attitude of respect for cultural differences rather than judge the culture of other people as uncivilized and backward.
Regards respect for cultural differences:
• Valuing cultural diversity;
• The acceptance and respect for other cultures;
• Try to understand the culture and the elements in terms of its own context and logic;
• Accept that every body has adapted the inherent dignity and importance as the way of life of a group, which was worked out in its environment, the biological needs of its members, and the relationship with the group;
• Knowing that the culture of a people is just one of many; and
• Recognizing that some immoral, ethical, acceptable, and others, in one culture may not be so in other cultures.
Cultural relativism can be considered the opposite of ethnocentrism. However, there is a problem with the argument that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another. This is due to its extremity, it maintains that no superior, international or universal morality.
Summing involved in the problems of ethnocentrism and cultural relativism, concepts tough choices, dilemmas and contradictions about cultural exchange and relations between and within societies. The dilemmas and contradictions are evident when we see that the traditional anthropological position maintains that all the cultural beliefs and practices, including examples of which are designated as "harmful traditional practices" in Ethiopia, is an important part of the overall cultural system of a society and therefore they should not be judged and undermined by an outsider. otherwise challenging conditions of extreme cultural relativism appears to lead to a misconception, because it means that there is no universal moral culture or so should be evaluated in action and belief. and yet, even cultural anthropologists accept the idea that there are some cultural norms universally found everywhere, for example reflected in the major religions of the world. In any case, there is to be no ready-made solution to the problem; But what can we maintain today is that cultural diversity should be respected, yet international standards of justice and human rights should be considered.
Culture Shock
Culture Shock is the psychological and social maladjustment in micro or macro levels experienced for the first time the people of the new cultural elements like new things, new ideas, new concepts, encounters seem strange beliefs and practices . Nobody is protected form of culture shock. However, people vary in their ability to adapt and overcome the effects of culture shock. Strong ethnocentric people are widely exposed to culture shock. Alternatively cultural relativists can easily adapt to new situations and overcome culture shock.

Ethnocentrism, cultural relativism and Culture Shock

Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Definition
Social stratification is one of the results of ongoing social processes taking place. Every society is segmented into different hierarchies. In almost all societies, some people considered more important than others (deserves more respect than others), either within the society as a whole or in certain situations.
Social stratification is the segmentation of society in different hierarchical arrangement or strata. It refers to the differences and disparities in socio-economic life of the people in a given society. It represents the list of individuals or social position and status in the social structure. The term is derived from geology, when it is used to explain the hierarchical arrangement of rocks and minerals on the surface of the earth. Applied to the world of men, refers hierarchical arrangement of people in different classes or layers separating the population in two or more layers, each relatively homogenous, between which there are differences in privileges , limitations, benefits and obligations.

The importance of studying social stratification
The study of social stratification is particularly important for sociologists. Some of the reasons for this may include :
• To evaluate the class members of the individual in society, with the aim of understanding the nature of life people live. It wants to know what kind of life of individuals in a particular social group or stratum life is essential for sociological study.
• To examine the basis for the allocation of individuals to different hierarchies of social structure. What is the basis for the stratification of individuals in a given stratum?
• To understand the relationship between individuals divided into different hierarchies. What kind of interactions and relationships between individuals in different layers?
• For the relationship between individuals or groups hierarchy in the same test. What are the relationships that exist between people in the same stratum?
• To understand what kind of social system gives rise to some of the types of hierarchies. That is, the kind of social stratification varies between cultures, times and forms of social system.

Social stratification

Social process can manifest itself in many ways. There are basically five types of social processes. They are competitive, conflict, cooperation, accommodation and assimilation. The modes are universal; They will take place at the micro and macro levels. A form of social process can bring a different balance; eg competitive cooperation. One can also another, providing they find a place in an endless cycle. For example, can provide competition conflicts.
1. contest
Competition as a social process seems clearer than others. It is true that in our day-to-day interpersonal encounters, and global situation. Competition is the process by individuals, groups, organizations and countries that are actively trying to win to get their share of limited resources. It is an impersonal attempt scarce and precious resources of wealth, land, health, etc. Get as a result of competition, layering,physical separation, etc. can occur in a society. Competition is struggle, dedication, decision, action, etc., in order to survive. The competition is compensated by cooperation.
2. cooperation
The collaboration is a social process in which people work together towards achieving common goals. The competition is more likely to be sophisticated, modern, industrialized society than traditional homogeneous society where cooperation seems to be more important.
3. conflict
In the process of competition for power (which may be the economic, social and political) resources, conflicts are bound to occur. Conflict involves disagreement and disharmony, which results due to differences in ideology, standard of living, and other social factors. It is a universal phenomenon, an ever-present reality, takes place both at micro and macro levels. Conflict involves the clash of interests between individuals in a social group such as a family or between groups or associations. This is the result due to power imbalances, as a result of unfair distribution of resources. This makes social class and stratification. Conflict can be between men and women, young and older generations; between different religious, ethnic and political groups.
4. accommodation
People may decide to avoid aware that the source of the conflict thus have to accept the agreement to live together, coexist in relative peace, avoiding open conflict. Property is a social process in which people try to accept one another, avoiding the sources of conflict to live in peaceful coexistence. It is a conscious adjustment and compromise between conflicting groups so that they can survive without apparent conflict.
5. assimilation
Assimilation is a social process in which a group of individuals are aware of and accept the values, standards, etc., from other groups and sometimes almost identical to the dominant group. Assimilation involves the acceptance or internalization of the culture, the values ​​of the larger and dominant groups and lifestyles by smaller or minority. Assimilation is imposed or voluntary. In the era of globalization with westernization process in which citizens of the Third World have access to the values, beliefs and practices of the industrialized West.

Types of social process

Theories of social change are, in general, related to the direction of change and the way in which the changes occur. Sociologists like to explain the nature, direction, causes and consequences of social change. Some theories of social change are as follows;
1. Structural functionalist theory
This theory argues that social change occurs as the diversification and increasing division of labor in the social system of a particular society. Structural functionalists focus on coherence, order and stability of the social system. Change disturbs the proper functioning of the system. Structural-functionalist theory focuses on the impact of social change in the structure of society, the function and dysfunction of change, the stability and balance of the social system. When a change occurs, the order and the balance of the social system is defined and thus the system itself to bring back to equilibrium, the functioning of the system is smooth.
2. Conflict theory
This theory argues that social change occurs as a result of the ever-present class conflict in the social system for better or worse. According to this theory, that social change is the result of social conflicts and important and useful. Every social system in the seeds of change in so far as it is a system where the use of a group by the other exists. Social change remains to be inevitable until a classless society, one which will not cause conflict.
3. Cyclic theory
This theory states that communities undergoing change in a circular manner. Social change takes a cyclical form of worse to better, more efficient back worse. Social change is not always for the better. Associations can grow, advance and reach a maximum stage of development, and they can stagnate and ultimately collapse, with rising the potential for the weather.
linear theory
This theory states that the change occurs in a linear fashion. The direction of social change is better from the worse, from simple to complex and back to modern. In other words, according to the linear theory, evolutionary social change; it is always better to reach perfection. modernization theory
The theory of social change can be considered an extension of the linear evolution. It is claimed that the changes experienced by most Third World societies by imitation or duplication of values, experiences and models of all modern societies. It is by adopting; assimilate and internalize the aspects of industrialized society copying will lead to a better social, economic and political development of society.

Theories of social change

The various factors that promote or impede social change can generally be classified as socio-cultural, psychosocial, economic, natural, demographic, political, and so on. Natural factors can alter the climate, the discovery of natural resources such as minerals, oil, etc. are included, are those which are regarded as having a positive impact on society. Other natural factors include natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, famine, drought, pestilence, and others. The emergence of the HIV / AIDS plague as for example having a major impact on the arrangement and organization of society.
Demographic factors, migration, urbanization, population growth, etc., It is also important to the development of socio-cultural change. Political factors such as the proposed government changes, change of state ideology, etc., are also important. Other factors, such as war, scientific invention and discovery, dissemination of intangible and tangible elements of culture through education and trade relations, and others, also promotes social change.
Last but not least, psychosocial factors, such as beliefs, vested interests, sacred values, attitudes, resistance to change and accept or entertain new things and wants to maintain the status quo is also very important force.

Factors that facilitate and impede positive social change

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Cultural alternatives and cultural specialties

There are many different ways to do the same. For example, create a universal aspect of culture for a patient; but the way people vary pat...

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