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Friday, 18 August 2017

 There are fundamentally three levels of learn in sociology, which can also be considered as a subdivision of sociology: micro-macro-sociology and meso-level sociology (Henslin and Nelson, 1995).
 Micro-sociology is interested in small-scale level of the arrangement and gathering of human social groups; Micro-sociological level of study focuses on social dealings. It examines the interpersonal affairs, and what people do and how they perform when they interact.
 While macro-sociology concern the essential phases of society.
Macro-sociology focuses on the wide description of society. The goal of macro-sociology is the large-scale social phenomenon that manages how social groups are organized and situated in the analysis of social arrangement. The level of education is generally used representative connections perspective.

Some writers also a third level of learning called meso-level analysis, in which human social phenomenon between the micro- and macro-level analyses. Because of their exacting educational interest sociologists, a type of learning in other chosen; but all levels of learning are valuable and essential for a better understanding of social life in society.

Level of sociological learning

The scope of sociology is very broad, from the investigation of the passing encounter between individuals on the avenue to the study of universal social processes, the discipline has a very broad range that every feature of human including social circumstances; all kinds of human interaction and variety of social behaviour (Indrani, 1998). Sociologists are predominantly fascinated in people as they become visible in the social interface and the crash of these interactions on human behaviour. Such connections can vary from the first physical make contact with with the infant baby with his mother in a philosophical discussion at an international conference, a casual passing in the street in the most friendly human relationships (1994 World Book Encyclopedia). Sociologists are paying attention to know what development lead to interaction, what happens when they take place, and what their short idiom and long term penalty.
The main system unit or interactions that curiosity sociologists social groups such as family or peer group; social affairs, such as social accountability and dyadic relationships, and social unions such as governments, businesses and school systems such as district organisations such as churches and schools (and Selzinki Broom, 1973).

Sociologists enthusiastic to appreciate, clarify, and analyse the collision of the social world, social environment and social relations behaviour, worldviews, lifestyle, personality, judgement, decisions, etc., so creative, talented, intelligent members of society; and how we make social reality as such.

Subject, scope and concern of sociology

Basic Concepts
August Comte
social and static social dynamics
Karl Marx
class conflict, emotion, historical materialism
Emile Durkheim
social reality
Max Weber
1864- 1920
social action; subjective sense
Herbert Spencer
social Darwinism
Harriet Martineau
actively advocate the abolition of slavery and gender issues

Basic concepts revolutionary founder of sociology

Society: a group of people who live in a kind of partial area and involvement in ordinary way of life
Culture is the natural way of life joint by a group or society.
Now, turning to the predicament definition, it is important that in addition to this etymological sense of the phrase, we need other crucial meaning. So sociology in general can be distinct as social science phenomenon such as the types of studies:
• The formation and meaning of society as a system;
• The nature, contented and density of human social behaviour;
• The establishment of human social life;
• Interface with people in their outdoor environment;
• The significance of social communication for the development of man;

• How are we affected the social humanity, etc.

Society and culture

Thursday, 20 July 2017

A more formal definition of sociology could be that the social science processes and forms of the human individual and group interface, the way of establishment of social groups, the correlation between them and persuade con- grouping learning individual manners, and vice versa, and the communication between a social group and any more (professional group, 2000).
Sociology is the systematic study of society, which is fascinated in the study of social interaction between people in a grouping. Sociology is involved in how we as human being interrelate with each other (the model of societal interface); the commandment and main beliefs governing the social relationships and connections; the / influence of the social world of the individual, and vice versa . It is an actuality evident object depends on experimental research and involves endeavour theories and generalisations wisdom of realism (Giddens, 1982) will make.
About distinguish and sensational the nature of science, Soroka (1992: 34) declare that "Sociology is a disprove science; that is, it looks for levels other than the representative elucidation of society and people have a sense justification of social reality in the world. Sociologists are fascinated in perceptive what does and does not realize the judgement. "
Sociology and other social sciences developed from the same convention of reflection of social phenomenon; interest in the nature of human societal performance and society will perhaps always exist; However, most people in most societies of the past saw their culture as a everlasting article and given by God. This vision is gradually replaced by a more rational explanation starting from the 17th century, especially in western Europe (Rosenberg, 1987). The sociological issues, questions and issues were raised and discussed by ancestors from the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers and Hebrew prophets again.
Sociology as an academic science was thus born in the 19th century (the formal establishment year 1837) in Britain and Western Europe, especially in France and Germany, and highly advanced through the 19th and th -20 century.
The development of sociology and the current context must be understood in the context of the major changes that created the modern world (Giddens, 1986). Furthermore, sociology originated in 18th century philosophy, political economy and cultural history (swing Wood, 1991).
The main condition, social changes, revolutions and social ferment that give rise to the emergence and development of sociology as an academic science provided with the industrial revolution began in Britain, the French political revolution of 1789, the enlightenment and development science and technology. These revolutions are important social changes and pain in the way that society is living in those countries. Because sociology is born among the main political and socio-economic and technological changes of the western world, it is said that the science of modern society.
The pioneering sociologists are very worried about the great changes that have occurred and they found that the exciting science can not help understand, explain, and analyze the basic laws governing interpret the social phenomena. So sociology is born of this revolutionary context.

History of sociology

The founder of pioneering sociologists are as follows (Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Giddens, 1996; Macionis, 1997):

• Auguste Comte, French Social Philosopher(1798- 1857)
Comte is the first social philosopher money and use the term sociology (Nobbs, Hine and Flemming, 1978). He was the first to consider himself as a sociologist as well.
He defined sociology as the scientific study of social dynamics and social static. He argued that can and should study society and social events after the pattern and methods of social science. Comte believed that a theoretical science of society and the systematic study of human behavior needed to improve society. He argued that the new science and society should make a critical contribution to a new and improved human society. Comte defined sociology as the study of social dynamics and social static, the former means changing, progressing and the development dimension of society, while the latter refers to the social order and elements of society and social phenomena that tend to be completely preserved and relatively permanent, the modification conflicted.

• Karl Marx (German, 1818-1883)
Marx is a world-renowned social philosopher, sociologist and economic historian. He has made remarkable contributions to the development of various social sciences such as sociology. He contributed greatly to sociological ideas. He introduced the basic concepts of sociology such as social class, social class conflict, social oppression, feelings, etc. Marx, like Comte, suggested that people who actively to bring its efforts on social reform must be done. According to Marx, economic forces are the key to underestimation of society and social change. He believes that the history of human society is that of class struggle. He dreamed and worked hard to achieve a classless society, one where there is no exploitation and oppression of one class by another will be, and where everyone will work on the basis of their abilities and receive according to their needs. Marx introduced one of the main insights of sociology, called social conflict theory (Macionis, 1997)

• Harriet Martineau, British sociologist (1802-1876)

In an era where women strongly stereotyped and do not have access to influential socio-political and academic arena, it is interesting that in a female academic to count among the leading sociologists. Harriet was interested in social issues and studied in the United States and England. He came to the writings of Comte and read them. He is an active supporter of the abolition of slavery and wrote many cross-cutting issues such as racial and gender relations, and they traveled extensively. He helped popularize translate the ideas and writings of Comte in English (Henslin and Nelson, 1995).

• Herbert Spencer, British philosopher Social,(1820-1903)
Spencer is a prominent social philosopher of the 19th century. He is known for the biological analogy of human society. He viewed society as an organic system has its own structure and function in a manner analogous to the biological system. Spencer's ideas about the evolution of human society from the lowest ( "barbarism") at the highest level ( "civilized") in accordance with established laws is famous. This "social Darwinism", analogous to biological evolution model. Social Darwinism is the attempt of the evolutionary theories of plant and animal development to apply in the interpretation of human society and social phenomena (Experts Group, 2000).

• Emile Durkheim, the French sociologist, (1858- 1917)
Durkehiem is the most influential scholars in the academic and theoretical development of sociology. He identified a number of basic principles, methods, concepts and theories of sociology; He defined sociology as the study of social reality. According to him, there are social reality, which is different from the biological and psychological facts. By social reality, he meant behavior that characterize a social group in the pattern in a particular society. These conditions must be studied objectively. The work of a sociologist, is also to expose the social reality and then explain them by other social facts. Some regard as the first sociologist Durkheim to apply statistical methods to the study of social phenomena (Macionis 1997; Clahoun, et al, 1994).

• Max Weber, the German sociologist (1864-1920)
Weber is a prominent social scientist. According to him, sociology is the scientific study of human social behavior. Social action refers to an "action aimed to influence or affect the other person or people. It is not necessary that more than one person be physically present for the actions that are considered social action .. .. "(Team of Experts, 2000). It concerns itself with the interpretive understanding of human social action and the importance that people attach to their own actions and behavior and that of others. Weber was a famous scientist who, like Marx, written in various scientific fields. He agreed with many Marxist propositions, but does not accept his idea that economic forces are central to social change. Weber argues that we can not understand the behavior of people just by looking at the statistics. Every activity and behavior of the people should be interpreted. He argued that a sociologist should focus on what subjective meaning, the way people interpret their own behavior or meanings people attach call their own behavior (Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Rosneberg, 1987).

Founder of pioneering sociologists

Deadline Scheduling
• Information used
üReady time
üStarting deadline
üCompletion deadline
üProcessing time
üResource requirements
üSubtask scheduler

Mark and Sweep Collecting
Mark and Sweep
• Mark using depth-first traversal of the memory graph
• Sweep using lengths to find next block

What is an operating system?
• Top-down view
• Bottom-up view
• Time multiplexing
• Space multiplexing

Type of Operating Systems
• Main frame operating systems
• Time-sharing systems
• Multiprocessor operating systems
• PC operating systems
• Real-time operating systems
• Embedded operating system

OS Structure
• Monolithic Design
• Layering
• Micro-kernel

ELF Object File Format
• Elf header
• Program header table
• .text section
• .data section
• .bss section

Asynchronous Exceptions (Interrupts)
• Caused by events external to the processor

Synchronous Exceptions
• Traps
• Faults
• Aborts

Process Creation
• Assign a unique process identifier
• Allocate space for the process
• Initialize process control block

Unix SVR4 Processes

Process Control Block
• Process state: e.g., running, ready, waiting, halted
• Priority
• Scheduling-related information
• Event

fork: Creating new processes
• int fork(void)

exit: Destroying Process
• void exit(int status)

Two uses of semaphores
• Mutual exclusion
• Scheduling constraints

Condition variables
• Condition variable: a queue of threads waiting for something inside a critical section.
• Wait() -- release lock, go to sleep, re-acquire lock
• Signal() -- wake up a waiter, if any
• Broadcast() -- wake up all waiters

Conditions for deadlock
• Without all of these, can't have deadlock:
1. Mutual exclusion
2. No preemption
3. Hold and wait
4. Circular wait

Features of Real-Time Operating Systems
• Fast process or thread switch
• Small size
• Ability to respond to external interrupts quickly
• Multitasking with inter-process communication tools such as semaphores, signals, and
• Use of special sequential files that can accumulate data at a fast rate
• Preemptive scheduling base on priority
• Minimization of intervals during which interrupts are disabled
• Delay tasks for fixed amount of time
• Special alarms and timeouts

Advantages and disadvantages of monolithic design

Major Advantages:
1.      Cost of module interaction is low  

1.      Hard to understand
2.      Hard to modify
3.      Unreliable
4.      Hard to maintain

User-level threads
User-level threads are faster to create and manage.
Implementation is by a thread library at the user level.
User-level thread is generic and can run on any operating system.
Multi-threaded applications cannot take advantage of multiprocessing.

Kernel-level threads
Kernel-level threads are slower to create and manage.
Operating system supports creation of Kernel threads.
Kernel-level thread is specific to the operating system.
Kernel routines themselves can be multi-threaded.

Shortest Job First (SJF) scheduling algorithm:
 It is a non preemptive scheduling algorithm which is used for batch systems. This algorithm works only when all the jobs are available at a particular time. In this algorithm the shortest job is picked form the queue and is run first. After that the next shortest job is picked and so on.

Shortest Job First (SJF) scheduling algorithm:
 It is a non preemptive scheduling algorithm which is used for batch systems. This algorithm works only when all the jobs are available at a particular time. In this algorithm the shortest job is picked form the queue and is run first. After that the next shortest job is picked and so on.

Shortest Remaining Time Next (SRTN) scheduling algorithm:
 It is a preemptive form of Shortest Job First (SJF) scheduling algorithm. In this algorithm a job is chosen whose remaining run time is the shortest. For a new job, its run time is compared with remaining time of current job. If new job needs less time to complete than the current job, then, the current job is blocked and the new job is run. It is used for batch systems and provides advantages to new jobs.

Static library
A static library is a programming concept in which shared libraries with special functionalities, classes or resources are linked to external applications or components, facilitating the creation of stand-alone and executable files.

CS 703 Advance Operating System Viva Solved Questions

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Level of sociological learning

  There are fundamentally three levels of learn in sociology, which can also be considered as a subdivision of sociology: micro-macro-soci...