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Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Social stratification is one of the results of ongoing social processes taking place. Every society is segmented into different hierarchies. In almost all societies, some people considered more important than others (deserves more respect than others), either within the society as a whole or in certain situations.
Social stratification is the segmentation of society in different hierarchical arrangement or strata. It refers to the differences and disparities in socio-economic life of the people in a given society. It represents the list of individuals or social position and status in the social structure. The term is derived from geology, when it is used to explain the hierarchical arrangement of rocks and minerals on the surface of the earth. Applied to the world of men, refers hierarchical arrangement of people in different classes or layers separating the population in two or more layers, each relatively homogenous, between which there are differences in privileges , limitations, benefits and obligations.

The importance of studying social stratification
The study of social stratification is particularly important for sociologists. Some of the reasons for this may include :
• To evaluate the class members of the individual in society, with the aim of understanding the nature of life people live. It wants to know what kind of life of individuals in a particular social group or stratum life is essential for sociological study.
• To examine the basis for the allocation of individuals to different hierarchies of social structure. What is the basis for the stratification of individuals in a given stratum?
• To understand the relationship between individuals divided into different hierarchies. What kind of interactions and relationships between individuals in different layers?
• For the relationship between individuals or groups hierarchy in the same test. What are the relationships that exist between people in the same stratum?
• To understand what kind of social system gives rise to some of the types of hierarchies. That is, the kind of social stratification varies between cultures, times and forms of social system.

Social stratification

Social process can manifest itself in many ways. There are basically five types of social processes. They are competitive, conflict, cooperation, accommodation and assimilation. The modes are universal; They will take place at the micro and macro levels. A form of social process can bring a different balance; eg competitive cooperation. One can also another, providing they find a place in an endless cycle. For example, can provide competition conflicts.
1. contest
Competition as a social process seems clearer than others. It is true that in our day-to-day interpersonal encounters, and global situation. Competition is the process by individuals, groups, organizations and countries that are actively trying to win to get their share of limited resources. It is an impersonal attempt scarce and precious resources of wealth, land, health, etc. Get as a result of competition, layering,physical separation, etc. can occur in a society. Competition is struggle, dedication, decision, action, etc., in order to survive. The competition is compensated by cooperation.
2. cooperation
The collaboration is a social process in which people work together towards achieving common goals. The competition is more likely to be sophisticated, modern, industrialized society than traditional homogeneous society where cooperation seems to be more important.
3. conflict
In the process of competition for power (which may be the economic, social and political) resources, conflicts are bound to occur. Conflict involves disagreement and disharmony, which results due to differences in ideology, standard of living, and other social factors. It is a universal phenomenon, an ever-present reality, takes place both at micro and macro levels. Conflict involves the clash of interests between individuals in a social group such as a family or between groups or associations. This is the result due to power imbalances, as a result of unfair distribution of resources. This makes social class and stratification. Conflict can be between men and women, young and older generations; between different religious, ethnic and political groups.
4. accommodation
People may decide to avoid aware that the source of the conflict thus have to accept the agreement to live together, coexist in relative peace, avoiding open conflict. Property is a social process in which people try to accept one another, avoiding the sources of conflict to live in peaceful coexistence. It is a conscious adjustment and compromise between conflicting groups so that they can survive without apparent conflict.
5. assimilation
Assimilation is a social process in which a group of individuals are aware of and accept the values, standards, etc., from other groups and sometimes almost identical to the dominant group. Assimilation involves the acceptance or internalization of the culture, the values ​​of the larger and dominant groups and lifestyles by smaller or minority. Assimilation is imposed or voluntary. In the era of globalization with westernization process in which citizens of the Third World have access to the values, beliefs and practices of the industrialized West.

Types of social process

Theories of social change are, in general, related to the direction of change and the way in which the changes occur. Sociologists like to explain the nature, direction, causes and consequences of social change. Some theories of social change are as follows;
1. Structural functionalist theory
This theory argues that social change occurs as the diversification and increasing division of labor in the social system of a particular society. Structural functionalists focus on coherence, order and stability of the social system. Change disturbs the proper functioning of the system. Structural-functionalist theory focuses on the impact of social change in the structure of society, the function and dysfunction of change, the stability and balance of the social system. When a change occurs, the order and the balance of the social system is defined and thus the system itself to bring back to equilibrium, the functioning of the system is smooth.
2. Conflict theory
This theory argues that social change occurs as a result of the ever-present class conflict in the social system for better or worse. According to this theory, that social change is the result of social conflicts and important and useful. Every social system in the seeds of change in so far as it is a system where the use of a group by the other exists. Social change remains to be inevitable until a classless society, one which will not cause conflict.
3. Cyclic theory
This theory states that communities undergoing change in a circular manner. Social change takes a cyclical form of worse to better, more efficient back worse. Social change is not always for the better. Associations can grow, advance and reach a maximum stage of development, and they can stagnate and ultimately collapse, with rising the potential for the weather.
linear theory
This theory states that the change occurs in a linear fashion. The direction of social change is better from the worse, from simple to complex and back to modern. In other words, according to the linear theory, evolutionary social change; it is always better to reach perfection. modernization theory
The theory of social change can be considered an extension of the linear evolution. It is claimed that the changes experienced by most Third World societies by imitation or duplication of values, experiences and models of all modern societies. It is by adopting; assimilate and internalize the aspects of industrialized society copying will lead to a better social, economic and political development of society.

Theories of social change

The various factors that promote or impede social change can generally be classified as socio-cultural, psychosocial, economic, natural, demographic, political, and so on. Natural factors can alter the climate, the discovery of natural resources such as minerals, oil, etc. are included, are those which are regarded as having a positive impact on society. Other natural factors include natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, famine, drought, pestilence, and others. The emergence of the HIV / AIDS plague as for example having a major impact on the arrangement and organization of society.
Demographic factors, migration, urbanization, population growth, etc., It is also important to the development of socio-cultural change. Political factors such as the proposed government changes, change of state ideology, etc., are also important. Other factors, such as war, scientific invention and discovery, dissemination of intangible and tangible elements of culture through education and trade relations, and others, also promotes social change.
Last but not least, psychosocial factors, such as beliefs, vested interests, sacred values, attitudes, resistance to change and accept or entertain new things and wants to maintain the status quo is also very important force.

Factors that facilitate and impede positive social change

These are factors that make it difficult to separate the family or group to move from one position to another.

  • Such barriers can include a variety of social, psychological, cultural, economic, political and other factors.
  •  Lack of opportunities, motivation, commitment, interest, or positive attitude, and so on, is very important psychosocial factors. 
  • Other major barriers can take on their own physical condition, lack of access to appropriate modern education; inherited inequalities in the distribution of wealth; skin color or ethnic origin man, religion, etc. These are the most obvious obstacles to social mobility.

Barriers to upward social mobility

Definition of social mobility
Every society has different layers. Different individuals and groups occupy a particular position in society is not permanent in that position. Some from one position to another, higher social class can make the social class lower, and vice versa. Social mobility implies a series of changes in opportunities, income, lifestyle, personal relationships, social status and the latter class of membership. Social mobility is a form of movement, but it is not a physical movement across geographical space, although that may include social mobility, and brought about by physical mobility. This movement in the social space, moving or changing laws or class position. Social mobility is a social process that occurs between individual members or groups take in society, because they interact. This is a process where the individual or group one position to another; or a class or another layer.
Social mobility describes the quantity and quality of movement between the layers. That's the kind of action that people from different social classes. Our review unit of social mobility can be an individual or a social group or a nation.
 Types of social mobility
Sociologists have identified different types of social mobility. The following is a brief discussion of the different forms of social mobility .
1. Vertical social mobility
Vertical social mobility is a form of social mobility that individuals experience when they move from their different social status higher or lower social status. This is a radical change in the social position of an individual. It is a movement between different social classes and involves a change in the social position of an individual, a family or a group. It can be up or down.
2. Horizontal social mobility
Horizontal social mobility is also lateral social mobility. It is a movement within a social class or social position where individuals improved slightly and / or decreases in its social position in his / her grade level. Unlike vertical social mobility, it does not involve drastic changes.
Intergenerational social mobility.This form of social mobility, the movement up or down, between social classes one or two generations of a family or social group. This mobility, our attention is a social group, like family. Here we look at the optimum position of the family of two or more generations, that is, the social position of the grandfather, father and son.
3. Intra-generational mobility
It's about individual changes in positions during a person's life. It can also refer to changes that occur in groups or socio-economic position of a country during a given period. In other words, by performing or other means, it is possible that up with a bad teacher that a judge of the high court. Unlike Inter-generational social mobility, intra-generational social mobility is in one generation. But as intergenerational social mobility, it is an upward or downward social mobility. Unlike intergenerational social mobility, our focus is on a particular person or group. Here we see a change in the social position of an individual or a group over the life of the individual or group up or down in some cases. For example, a person can stand on his / her life from a lower position as shoe shining and climbing the social ladder until he becomes a member of a good social and economic position. Or, others may occur once in their losing the prestigious socio-economic position and as a result down until they end up in poverty.
4. Avenues of social mobility
The avenues of social mobility is the door through which a person is moving upward in the social hierarchy. The main road to social mobility in most modern societies, access to appropriate modern education. Change of profession / occupation and geographical mobility is also a possibility. Some sudden opportunity or short cut for social mobility as well. This includes additional benefits in the areas of inheritance, gambling, theft or financial corruption, a winning lottery, etc. Such action is rare, considering that most of the inheritance within the same social group.
The opportunities for upward social mobility is large in modern society have open systems. In such a society, there is freedom of vertical social mobility, and a member of a society can move up or down the social hierarchy. There are no legal and / or traditional restrictions on social mobility in both directions. What counts a great deal of his personal merits, contests and efforts to achieve. On the other hand, vertically, especially upwards, it is difficult in communities with a closed system. In this society, individuals born to be a particular social position in that category for their lives. The main determinants are not individual performance here, right or personal effort, but what matters most is the source of a person's racial background, family background, religion, gender, ethnicity, etc. 

social mobility

Social stratification are important implications for the health and well-being of people. Social stratification is directly related to the problem of inequality, inequality etc, and which have a direct or indirect impact on the life chances of people in social strata. Health status of individuals is one of the opportunities that life can be significantly influenced by a person's position in the system of stratification.
The different systems of stratification by age, gender, race, religion, profession, etc., directly or indirectly promote equal opportunities in the standards of living.
The basic concept of the relationship between health and social stratification, the concept of vulnerability, risk and danger. Vulnerability is a sociological concept that refers to the 'characteristics of individuals and social groups [along the lines of gender, age, race, occupation, etc.,] to [their assets] to protect themselves, to fight and recover from disasters, including health risk on the basis of determining their access to material and non-material resources ".

Impact of social stratification in the lives of individuals

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Social stratification

Definition Social stratification is one of the results of ongoing social processes taking place. Every society is segmented into differen...