Sunday, 18 August 2013

Influence of the family on children intellectual development

Topic name


Influence of the family on children intellectual development
Objectives:
After reviewing this chapter, readers will be able to:
·        Describe how family influence on children intellectual development.
·        Explain the role of parents in a children intellectual development.
·        Identify the major family factor that effect on children intellectual development.
Meanings
·        Influence
                  The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.
·        family
A group consisting of parents and children living together in a household.
·        Intellectual development
A person possessing a highly developed intellect.
·        Development
The process of developing or being developed
Definitions
What is influence?
The act or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command
What is intellectual development?
Relating to the ability to think in an intelligent way and to understand things, especially difficult or complicated ideas and subjects
Ø  Factors that Influence of the family on children intellectual development:
The child’s education begins at home. It is within the family that the development of his mental ability starts. Hence, if the family possesses a favorable intellectual atmosphere, the mental development of the child is speeded.
In infancy, the child imitates his parents. At atmosphere of self-dependence in the family makes a child self-sufficient and self-reliant, his mental faculties develop properly. Parents should make their best efforts to satisfy the inquisitiveness of their children and should pursue the child to think for him self .For full mental development, it is necessary that relationship between parents and other family relation should be full of love and affection.
1. Hereditary 
Heredity refers to genetically transmitted characteristics from generation to the next. We inherit genetic code from parents. Person's genetic heritage is called genotype. The genotype expresses itself in observable appearance and behavior, which is called phenotype. The phenotype includes height, weight, eye color, and psychological characteristics such as intelligence, personality and creativity.
The genetic code provides the base on which phenotype grows and manifests. How can we know that human intelligence has a genetic basis? To do so, we have to infer the underlying genotypes from the observable phenotypic behavior.
A strategy to understand genotypes from phenotypes is to examine the similarities between the intelligence level of children, and their parents and relatives. Francis Galton (1885) was of the view that intelligence is largely inherited, and it runs in families. Parents with high IQs tend to have children with high IQs, and parents with low IQs have children with relatively low IQs (Crooks and Stein, 1995).
Correlations between IQs of brothers, sisters, children and their parents, and their distant relatives indicate that intelligence has a strong hereditary component (Kagan and havemann, 1976). The correlation between the IQs of one child and another person selected at random would tend to be zero, while among the related individuals the correlations would be relatively high.
2. Parent-Child interaction
Parents are the first teachers for the child. The nature of mental behavioral transactions between the parents and the child has a critical influence on his intellectual competence. Children's intellectual develops is faster when parents provide emotional security, make the family environment more supportive, praise the child's achievement, allow independence, support the intellectual achievement of children. On the contrary, with stressful family conditions and protective parents encouraging dependence in child the child's intellectual development suffers. Parental expectations for boys and girls differ and are reflected in their achievements. Parents consider mathematics more important for boys than girls. There are many studies to suggest that girls outshine boy language skills, whereas boys show superior performance in mathematical and spatial tests.
3. Socioeconomic status (SES)
Children of the upper socioeconomic strata of the society are exposed to more intellectual stimulation, get better social opportunities, and are nurtured with better nutrition. All these are believed to influence their intellectual development in a positive direction. The index of socioeconomic status (SES) is based on parental education, occupation, and income. The higher is the socioeconomic status of the parents, the higher is the average IQ of children.
The children of low socioeconomic status score approximately 10 to 15 IQ points below the middle-class and higher-class children (Hall and Kaye, 1980). These differences are present by the first grade and are sustained throughout the school years. Parental occupation is closely related to the IQ level of children (Harrell and Harrell, 1945).
The intellective support provided to children at home differs from one SES to another. Moreover, children from varying SES levels bring different attitudes and cognitive styles to the problem-solving situation, which affect their performance (Yando, Seitz and Zigler, 1979).
4. Resource needs provided parents
Resource needs generated by a child at biological risk or with a disability, the third
category of potential stressors, are equally important. Child characteristics often disrupt
typical family routines, placing numerous unexpected time and financial demands on
family members (e.g., Bristol, 1987; Dyson, 1993). All of these factors related to
resource needs have the potential to disrupt one or more of the three family patterns of
interaction that influence the children intellectual development.
Ø  The role of parents in a children intellectual development
1. Encourage children and build confidence
 Praise and acknowledge children’s attempts and not just their successes. Showing children you value their effort helps to give them the confidence to keep trying.
2. Develop attention
 Children need focused time to learn and think. Help children develop attention and concentration by making sure that quiet time is set aside for homework and other learning tasks without TV or other distractions. Encouraging and rewarding children for concentrating and persisting with learning tasks will support good study habits and effective learning.
3. Provide ‘scaffolding’ for children’s learning
 Extend children’s learning by asking questions, giving children hints and prompts or showing them how (but not what) to do.
4. Involve in learning
 Learning as a family can bring significant benefits for adults and the children in their care. It can:
·        Enhance their ability to support the child’s education
·        Help create a culture of learning
·        Help improve their own skills and confidence
·        Help them to understand how to support the development of the child’s skills.
Ø  The role of teacher in a children intellectual development
1.      Provide resources needed to Playing
Children engage in play, which has a role in cognitive or intellectual development and helps children develop cognitive skills, such as problem solving. Children do less complex play in settings where the activities are controlled by the teacher. Teachers can give children the resources needed to play, such as arts and crafts, toys and games.
2.      Self-Efficacy
Children are more likely to succeed when they believe that they can succeed. Teachers can have a positive effect on the cognitive development of their children when they show that they have confidence in the child's abilities. Conversely, teachers who tell children that they won't likely "amount to anything" can seriously impair the child's cognitive development. Children set goals based on their conception of their ability, a phenomenon known as "self-efficacy."
Confident children conceptualize mental images of success that serve as maps to pursue success. People who have a lot of cognitive ability are more likely to succeed when they have self-efficacious thinking than if they have little self-efficacy. Teachers can try to encourage students to engage in positive self-talk.
3.      Intrinsic Motivation
Children should be given as many opportunities for choice as possible so they can develop an intrinsic motivation to learn, meaning the teacher won't have to force them to engage in learning exercises. When teachers are supportive of the child's desire to learn, the child might develop an intrinsic desire to learn. Then, they will be motivated to continue learning without the help of the teacher and they develop their intellectual abilities.
4.      Interpersonal Interaction
Children learn most effectively by interacting with others. Therefore, teachers play a crucial role in a child's cognitive development, by interacting with kids. They can also help facilitate group activities, which allow children to learn from each other. Teacher interaction and group activities allow children to develop intellectual skills.
Formative Questions:
Q1.      What is intellectual development?
Q2.      How family factors influence the children intellectual development?
Q3.      What is the role of parents in a children intellectual development?
Final assessment MCQs
1.         Children of the _______ socioeconomic strata of the society are exposed to more intellectual stimulation.
            a) Upper                                             b) Lower                    c) Middle
2.         Extend children’s learning by asking questions, giving children ___ and prompts or showing them how to do.
            a) Guess                                             b) Hints                      c) Help
3.         Children's ______develops is faster when parents provide emotional security, make the family environment more supportive.
            a) Physical                                         b) Intellectual                       c) Cognitive
4.         _______ refers to genetically transmitted characteristics from generation to the next.
            a)  Family                                          b) Environment                    c) Heredity
 5.        Parental occupation is closely related to the _______ level of children.
            a) Intelligence quotient                   b) Physical quotient             c) Growth
Influence of the family on children intellectual development
Summary                                        (138)
Factors that Influence of the family on children intellectual development:
The child’s education begins at home. It is within the family that the development of his mental ability starts. Hence, if the family possesses a favorable intellectual atmosphere, the mental development of the child is speeded. There are some Factors that Influence of the family on children intellectual development:
Heredity refers to genetically transmitted characteristics from generation to the next. We inherit genetic code from parents. Person's genetic heritage is called genotype. The genotype expresses itself in observable appearance and behavior, which is called phenotype. The phenotype includes psychological characteristics such as intelligence, and creativity.
A strategy to understand genotypes from phenotypes is to examine the similarities between the intelligence level of children, and their parents and relatives. Galton was of the view that intelligence is largely inherited, and it runs in families. Parents with high IQs tend to have children with high IQs, and parents with low IQs have children with relatively low IQs.
2. Parent-Child interaction
Parents are the first teachers for the child. The nature of mental behavioral transactions between the parents and the child has a critical influence on his intellectual competence. Children's intellectual develops is faster when parents provide emotional security, make the family environment more supportive, praise the child's achievement, allow independence, support the intellectual achievement of children.
3. Socioeconomic status (SES)
Children of the upper socioeconomic strata of the society are exposed to more intellectual stimulation, get better social opportunities, and are nurtured with better nutrition. All these are believed to influence their intellectual development in a positive direction. The index of socioeconomic status (SES) is based on parental education, occupation, and income. The higher is the socioeconomic status of the parents, the higher is the average IQ of children.
4. Resource needs provided parents
Resource needs generated by a child at biological risk or with a disability, the third
category of potential stressors, are equally important. Child characteristics often disrupt typical family routines, placing numerous unexpected time and financial demands on family members. All of these factors related to resource needs have the potential to disrupt the children intellectual development.
Ø  The role of parents in a children intellectual development
1. Encourage children and build confidence
2. Develop attention
3. Provide ‘scaffolding’ for children’s learning
4. Involve in learning
Ø  The role of parents in a children intellectual development
1. Provide resources needed to Playing
2. Self-Efficacy
3. Intrinsic Motivation
4. Interpersonal Interaction

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