Approaches of comparative education

 Apollo (1986) identified eight approaches to the study of Comparative Education. They are:
1. Problem Approach or Thematic approach
2. Case study approach
3. Area study approach
4. Historical approach
5. Descriptive approach
 6. Philosophical approach
 7. International approach and
8.  Gastronomic approach
1. Problem approach or thematic approach
  In this approach the investigator will first of all identify a particular educational problem in his own country. Then, he will begin to look for another country that has the same problem.
  The researcher will also study the education problem of another country in relation to their culture. The researcher will not only study the educational problem of another country but he will also examine the solution applied to such problem by the affected country.
2. Case study approach
  —  In this approach, an education comparativist from Nigeria can go to Iraq to study the primary education Level of the country. His report will be very comprehensive for his readers to understand.
  —  If it is possible for the researcher, he can take all the educational systems of the country and compare such educational system with his own educational system.
   The problem with this approach is that as a human being, the investigator may not be totally objective in his report.
3. Area study approach
Breeder (1958) is of the opinion that "one of the oldest and clearest ways of introducing the subject comparative Education is to study one geographical area at a time" He therefore identified the following stages:
  Following stages in the area study approach
i .Descriptive Stage –
  At this stage, an Educational researcher can make a description of his own educational system as well as practices.
  The investigator has to start by reading extensively. He will start by reviewing the available literature on the educational system of the country being studied.
  To enable the investigator have on the spot assessment, he can personally visit the country whose educational system is studying.
ii.Interpretation stage
At this stage of the study, the investigator will now collate and analyze  the data gathered from various sources to enable him do justice to the educational system of the area being studied.
iii.  Juxtaposition (combination)stage
    At this stage of the study the investigator will put side by side the result obtained from the interpretation(analysis) stage with the educational system  of his own country.
iv. Comparative stage
At this stage of the investigation, the researcher will objectively compare and contrast the educational practices of the country being studied with that of his own.
It is at this stage of the study that whatever hypotheses that might have been formulated by the researcher that will be rejected or accepted.
4. Historical approach
   —  In this approach, an investigator  will only take a village, town or country for the examination of its educational historical development right from the first day when education was introduced into the place and the time of study.
  —  This approach will enable the researcher to identify the factors that are responsible for the current educational system of the country being studied. However, the problem with this approach is that greater emphasis is always placed on the past.
  —  Friedrich Schneider said in his publication(1947), he gave the following as the factors that can influence the educational theory and practice of any country:
(a) National character
(b) Geographical space
(c) Culture
(d) Sciences
(e) Philosophy
(f) Economic life and politics
(g) Religion
(h) History
(i) Foreign influences and
(j) The development of pedagogies
5. Descriptive approach
Here, the researcher will have to describe everything he finds on ground. Such things to be described could include:
  Number of schools,
  student enrolment,
  number of teachers,
  number of the school buildings including classrooms
  number of subjects being offered.
However, the approach is not very popular among the modern educational Comparatives.
6. International Approach
This is an approach whereby all the variations existing from one area to another within the same country are taken into consideration while comparing the system of education of a foreign country with one's educational system.
7. Gastronomic approach
This is a method whereby both the diet as well as the eating habit of the people in a particular country are related to the practices of their education, the approach is not very popular among the modern educational comparatives.
8. The philosophical approach
A Russian Philosopher by name Segues Hessen was the first man to apply philosophical approach to the study of Comparative Education when he published his book in 1928 which he titled "Kritische Vergleichung des Schulwesens der Anderen Kuturstaaten". In the book, he chose four main philosophical problems.