Thursday, 14 May 2015

Elements of Curriculum:

    Elements of curriculum are:
         1.     Objectives of Curriculum:Educational objectives are the statements that describe in precise, measurable terms what learners will be able to do at the end of an instructional sequence. A well-written objective includes the audience for whom the objective intended the observed and/or recorded behavior must be performed. When writing objectives, consider how you would test learners to determine if they achieved what you want them to achieve.
        On the basis of situation analysis, objectives are selected. Objectives serve as the blue prints for the development of curriculum.
Characteristics of Objectives:
·         Objective statements should provide guidelines for teachers, materials writers, test writers and learners.
·         These should be stated in precise, observable and measurable terms.
·         These should provide a focus for instruction and evaluation.
·         These should be realistically attainable during the curriculum.
Classification of Objectives:
Objectives can be classified as follows;
a)      General Objectives
General objectives are same as goals.
b)     Instructional Objectives
Instructional objectives are specifically related to instructional process. It means what students should do at the end of instruction or lesson. These are specific learning outcomes.
c)      Knowledge Objectives
These objectives mean we are able to find how much knowledge a student gets from the curriculum or lesson etc.
d)     Skills Objectives
These are the objectives to measure the skills attained by a students at the end of his lesson, class or session.
e)      Attitude Objectives
These are the objectives set to measure the attitude of students towards specific areas of their studies.
f)       Appreciation Objectives
These are the objectives set for reward or punishment at the end of lesson, test, semester, class, year or session.
      2.     Content of Curriculum:
Content is defined as the subject matter of the teaching learning process and it includes the knowledge, processes or skills associated with the knowledge base and the values associated with subjects or whatever is being learnt. The content of the curriculum includes the information to be learned in the educational institute. It is a compendium of facts, concepts, generalizations, principles, theories, etc.
    Principles to follow in Organizing the learning Contents:
1.         Balance
Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breadth of the particular learning. It ensures that no area will be overcrowded or less crowded. A balanced curriculum implies structure and order in its scope and sequence.
2.         Articulation
Articulation is the planned sequencing of content across grade levels, from one grade level to the next to ensure that the next grade level takes up where the previous grade level left off.  
3.         Sequence
This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. Sequencing is the logical or psychological arrangement of units of content within lessons, units, courses and grades.
4.         Integration
Integration in the context of a curriculum construction concept means the blending, fusion or unification of disciplines.
5.         Continuity
Learning requires a continuing application of new knowledge, skills and attitudes or values so that these will be used in daily living.
6.         Transferability
Whatever is taught in school should in some way posses transfer value, that is learning should have applicability in either a broad or narrow sense outside of school and after school years.
       3.     Teaching Methods:
  ¨  In teaching method the teacher know about, How the selected content to be delivered to the students to achieve objectives of the curriculum?
  ¨  The aim of curriculum is achieved with the help of teaching methods through selected content. These methods are applied for providing learning experience and bringing desirable change among the student.
¨  Teaching methods are identified to teach the subject that is more suitable to achieve the
 objectives. It also involved training of teachers to teach the content.
    v  Here is the list of teaching method that is adopted to achieve the objectives of curriculum.
¨  Teacher-centered method
¨  Learner-centered method
¨  Content - centered Method
 A -   Teacher-centered method:
  ¨  In this method, the teacher casts himself/ herself in the role of being a master of the subject matter. The teacher looked upon, by the learners as an expert or an authority. On other hand, the learners are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of the knowledge from the teacher.
Examples of such methods are;
 1. Expository methods
 2. Lecture methods
1. Expository method:
This method involves the transmission of information in a single direction from a source to learners. The source may take a variety of forms(book, television, person) although it is commonly a teacher in classroom.
2. Lecture method:
In a lecture the instructor tells, explains, describes or relates whatever information the learners are required to learn through listening and understanding. It is therefore teacher-centered method. In this method the instructor is very active, doing all the talking. On the other hand learners are very inactive, doing all the listening
B    -  Learner-centered method:
¨  A learner – centered method is a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, environmental influences and experiences for acquiring or making changes in learners.
¨  In this method, the teacher/ instructor is both, a teacher and a learner at the same time. The teacher also learns new things every day which he/she did not know in the process of teaching. The teacher “becomes a resource rather than an authority”.
Examples of learner- centered methods are;
 1. Discussion method
2. Problem solving method
3. Role play
4. Brain Storming
1. Discussion method
¨  A method in which group discussion techniques are used to reach instructional objectives.
¨  Discussion involves two-way communication between participants. In the classroom situation an instructor and trainees all participate in discussion. During discussion, the instructor spends some time listening while the trainees spend sometimes talking. The discussion is, therefore, a more active learning experience for the trainees than the lecture.
2. Problem solving method
This method helps students to gain the ability of scientific problem solving and using it in the every area of life.
Problem solving is a process to choose and use the effective and benefical tool and behaviours among the different potentialities to reach the target.
This method is used in the process of solving a problem to generalize or to make synthesis
3. Role play:
In role plays, participants use their own experiences to play a real life situation. When done well, role plays increase the participant’s self-confidence, give them the opportunity to understand or even feel empathy for other people’s viewpoints or roles, and usually end with practical answers, solutions or guidelines.
¨  Role plays are useful for exploring and improving interviewing techniques and examining the complexities and potential conflicts of group meetings.
4. Brain Storming
The purpose of a brainstorming session is to discover new ideas and responses very quickly. It is particularly a good way of getting bright ideas.
Participants are encouraged to let ideas flow freely, building on and improving from previous ideas. These ideas are listed exactly as they are expressed on a board or flipchart, or written on bits of paper. The combination of swiftly generated ideas usually leads to a very animated and energizing session.
C -  Content -centered Method:
¨  In this method, the teacher and the learners have to fit into the content that is taught.
¨  Generally, this means the information and skills to be delivered are regarded is important. A lot of emphasis is laid on the clarity and careful analyses of content.
¨  Examples of Content - centered methods are;
1.  Programmed Instruction Method
2.   Drill
3.  Study Assignment method
          1.            PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION METHOD
A method of self-instruction.
To provide the review and practice of knowledge and skills.
Improves end-of-course proficiency.
2.   Drill
¨  Repetition to hone a skill or memorize information.
3. STUDY ASSIGNMENT METHOD
¨  A method in which the instructor assigns reading to books, periodicals, project or research papers or exercises for the practice.
¨  Assignments are effective ways to teach students how to conduct self-study as well become independent from the teacher in acquiring information.
     4.     Evaluation:
The term “evaluation” generally applies to the process of making a value judgment. In education, the term “evaluation” is used in reference to operations associated with curricula, programs, interventions, methods of teaching and organizational factors. Curriculum evaluation aims to examine the impact of implemented curriculum on student (learning) achievement so that the official curriculum can be revised if necessary and to review teaching and learning processes in the classroom. 
      Curriculum evaluation establishes:
¨  Specific strengths and weaknesses of a curriculum and its implementation;
¨  Critical information for strategic changes and policy decisions;
¨  Inputs needed for improved learning and teaching;
¨  Indicators for monitoring.
      Types of evaluation
¨  Formative evaluation
¨  Summative evaluation
      1.      Formative evaluation:
According to N.E.Gronlund (1985)
“ Formative evaluation is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feedback to both pupil and teacher concerning learning successes and failures. Feedback to pupil reinforces successful learning and identifies the learning errors that need correction. Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying instruction and prescribing group and individual remedial work.
Examples include: Tests, home work, assignments of various forms and continuous Evaluation aspects.
     2.      Summative evaluation:
N.E.Gronlund (1985) observes:
  “ Summative evaluation typically comes at the end of a course or unit  of instruction. It is designed to determine extent to which the instructional objectives have been achieved and is used primarily for assigning course grades or certifying pupil mastery of the intended learning out-comes”.

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