Thursday, 26 May 2016

Experimental Research

q      Experimental research is an attempt by the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur.
q  This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time.
Experimental Design
q      Experimental design is a blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to test his hypothesis by reaching valid conclusions about relationships between independent and dependent variables.
q  Experimental design is a planned interference in the natural order of events by the researcher. He does something more than carefully observe what is occurring. This emphasis on experiment reflects the higher regard generally given to information so derived. There is good rationale for this. Much of the substantial gain in knowledge in all sciences has come from actively manipulating or interfering with the stream of events. There is more than just observation or measurement of a natural event. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions.
Experimental Study Steps
q    Identify and define the problem.
q    Formulate hypothesis and deduce its consequence.
q    Construct an experimental that represents all the elements, conditions, and relations to the  consequence.
q    Conduct the experiment.
q    Compile raw data and reduce to usable form.
q    Apply an appropriate test of significance.
Research Essentials
q    Manipulation of an independent variable.
q    All variables except the dependent  variable are held constant (control).
q    Manipulation of the dependent variable   by the independent variable is observed    (observation).
Experimental Control
q      Experimental control attempts to predict events that will occur in the experimental setting by neutralizing the effects of other factors.
q  A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements.
Control Methods
                                         
q      Physical control
q     Selective control
q     Statistical control
1. Physical control
q    Gives all subjects equal exposure   to the independent variable.
q    Controls non-experimental variables that effect the dependent variable.
2. Selective control
q      Indirectly manipulate by selecting in or out variables that cannot be controlled.
                       3. Statistical control
                   q      Variables not conducive to physical or selective manipulation may be controlled                          by statistical techniques.

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