Thursday, 20 July 2017

Founder of pioneering sociologists

The founder of pioneering sociologists are as follows (Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Giddens, 1996; Macionis, 1997):

• Auguste Comte, French Social Philosopher(1798- 1857)
Comte is the first social philosopher money and use the term sociology (Nobbs, Hine and Flemming, 1978). He was the first to consider himself as a sociologist as well.
He defined sociology as the scientific study of social dynamics and social static. He argued that can and should study society and social events after the pattern and methods of social science. Comte believed that a theoretical science of society and the systematic study of human behavior needed to improve society. He argued that the new science and society should make a critical contribution to a new and improved human society. Comte defined sociology as the study of social dynamics and social static, the former means changing, progressing and the development dimension of society, while the latter refers to the social order and elements of society and social phenomena that tend to be completely preserved and relatively permanent, the modification conflicted.

• Karl Marx (German, 1818-1883)
Marx is a world-renowned social philosopher, sociologist and economic historian. He has made remarkable contributions to the development of various social sciences such as sociology. He contributed greatly to sociological ideas. He introduced the basic concepts of sociology such as social class, social class conflict, social oppression, feelings, etc. Marx, like Comte, suggested that people who actively to bring its efforts on social reform must be done. According to Marx, economic forces are the key to underestimation of society and social change. He believes that the history of human society is that of class struggle. He dreamed and worked hard to achieve a classless society, one where there is no exploitation and oppression of one class by another will be, and where everyone will work on the basis of their abilities and receive according to their needs. Marx introduced one of the main insights of sociology, called social conflict theory (Macionis, 1997)

• Harriet Martineau, British sociologist (1802-1876)

In an era where women strongly stereotyped and do not have access to influential socio-political and academic arena, it is interesting that in a female academic to count among the leading sociologists. Harriet was interested in social issues and studied in the United States and England. He came to the writings of Comte and read them. He is an active supporter of the abolition of slavery and wrote many cross-cutting issues such as racial and gender relations, and they traveled extensively. He helped popularize translate the ideas and writings of Comte in English (Henslin and Nelson, 1995).

• Herbert Spencer, British philosopher Social,(1820-1903)
Spencer is a prominent social philosopher of the 19th century. He is known for the biological analogy of human society. He viewed society as an organic system has its own structure and function in a manner analogous to the biological system. Spencer's ideas about the evolution of human society from the lowest ( "barbarism") at the highest level ( "civilized") in accordance with established laws is famous. This "social Darwinism", analogous to biological evolution model. Social Darwinism is the attempt of the evolutionary theories of plant and animal development to apply in the interpretation of human society and social phenomena (Experts Group, 2000).

• Emile Durkheim, the French sociologist, (1858- 1917)
Durkehiem is the most influential scholars in the academic and theoretical development of sociology. He identified a number of basic principles, methods, concepts and theories of sociology; He defined sociology as the study of social reality. According to him, there are social reality, which is different from the biological and psychological facts. By social reality, he meant behavior that characterize a social group in the pattern in a particular society. These conditions must be studied objectively. The work of a sociologist, is also to expose the social reality and then explain them by other social facts. Some regard as the first sociologist Durkheim to apply statistical methods to the study of social phenomena (Macionis 1997; Clahoun, et al, 1994).

• Max Weber, the German sociologist (1864-1920)
Weber is a prominent social scientist. According to him, sociology is the scientific study of human social behavior. Social action refers to an "action aimed to influence or affect the other person or people. It is not necessary that more than one person be physically present for the actions that are considered social action .. .. "(Team of Experts, 2000). It concerns itself with the interpretive understanding of human social action and the importance that people attach to their own actions and behavior and that of others. Weber was a famous scientist who, like Marx, written in various scientific fields. He agreed with many Marxist propositions, but does not accept his idea that economic forces are central to social change. Weber argues that we can not understand the behavior of people just by looking at the statistics. Every activity and behavior of the people should be interpreted. He argued that a sociologist should focus on what subjective meaning, the way people interpret their own behavior or meanings people attach call their own behavior (Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Rosneberg, 1987).

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