Thursday, 2 November 2017

Basic characteristics of culture

The concept of culture is defined by hundreds of times by sociologists and anthropologists, focusing on different scope.
1. Culture is organic and supra-organic: organic is when we look at the fact that there is
no culture without human society. The above organic because it far above any individual life. Individuals come and go, but the culture remains and continues Calhoun (op cit).
2. Culture is overt and covert: It is usually divided into tangible and intangible culture. Material culture includes any tangible manmade objects such as furniture, vehicles, buildings, etc. Non-material culture consists of all non-physical aspects such as language, religion, ideas, knowledge, attitudes, values, etc.
3. Culture is explicit and implicit: Obviously when we are the actions that can be explained and readily described by those who run them to consider. It is implied if we consider what we do, but not to explain, but we believe it to be.
4. Culture is perfect and manifest (actual): Ideal culture refers to the way people should behave or what they should do. Manifest culture is what people actually do.
5. Culture is stable and does change: Culture is stable as we think people are important and forward over the next generation to maintain their value. However, when the culture has come into contact with different cultures, are subject to change. However, changing the culture not only because of its direct or indirect contact between cultures, but also through innovation and adaptation to new conditions.
6. Culture is shared and learned: Culture is the public ownership of a social group of people (share). Individuals gain knowledge of the culture of the group by socialization. But we must remember that everything distributed among the people can not cultural, because many biological characteristics that people share each (Kották, 2002).
7. Culture is symbolic: It is based on the goal of creating and using symbols; It is exclusive to men. Symbolic thinking is unique and critical for people and cultures. Symbolic thinking is the ability of people to give any meaning to an object or event and understand and appreciate the significance of the symbol is the central part of the culture. Symbol refers to something that people attach importance and which they use to communicate with others. More specifically, the symbols are words, objects, actions, sounds or pictures that represent something other than themselves. Symbolic thinking is unique and critical for people and cultures. It is the ability of people to learn a thing or event any phrase that give meaning and to understand and appreciate. No obvious natural or necessary connection between a symbol and what it symbolizes (Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Macionis, 1997).

Culture so the symbolic domain emphasis on meaning, rather than the technical / practical rational side of human behavior. All actions symbolic content as well as action in and of itself. Objects, actions, behavior, etc., always stand for something other than the thing itself.

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