Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Social problems in Ethiopia

A cursory glance at the streets of major urban centers in Ethiopia shows that this is a time when our contemporary society Ethiopian hosts many social problems. The nature, type, intensity and complexity of the social problems in contemporary Ethiopia reflection:
• long history of underdevelopment of the country;
• Socio-cultural backwardness;
• Poor level of scientific and technological development;
• Lack of good governance and political instability;
• Uncontrollable natural conditions, such as drought, famine, etc;
• The mismatch between the rapidly growing population and economic development; and
• Urbanization and economic development, among others .

The following are some of the major social problems in Ethiopia.
1. Vulnerability to hunger and the problem of food insecurity
Our country has experienced weakness in famine. It was subsequently hit by a severe drought and the resulting famine affecting the lives of countless people and animals declared. The trend in recent years, so much that in 2001/2002, there are about 14 million Ethiopians deteriorated exposed to the risk of famine. The famine of the early 1970s and 1984 were so severe that they are talking problems for the world. The problem is one of the top agenda for the government of Ethiopia today. It is not surprising that many people associate Ethiopia with famine, drought and poverty. Name of Ethiopia has become so popular that has garnered some famous people of money by the campaign fundraising on behalf of helping starving Ethiopians and used the money for their personal benefit .
The rural population is more vulnerable to hunger. The quality of life of rural people as a result very deteriorated. The main part of the society that are more affected by famine and drought are often children, women and the elderly. The death toll from famine, these categories constitute the majority (Fasil, op cit). Vulnerability to hunger as a social problem results in a number of adverse health effects. "Hunger and food insecurity worsen the spread of disease, it is now known that the mass death and famine caused cause mortality not only hunger, but also by the spread of the disease among the already vulnerable population "(Personal communication, Dr Abebe Teketel, AAU, Department of Sociology and Social Policy). So many cases of morbidity and mortality associated with hunger and lack of adequate nutrition especially in rural Ethiopia. Diseases such as kwashiorkor, marasmus, and poor physical conditions, such as growth retardation, weight loss, etc., these
Examples. This condition is the other extreme, a number of health problems such as being overweight in affluent societies.
2. prostitution
Prostitution emerged as a social problem associated with the growth of urbanization and urban development as a way of life. Although it has existed throughout history, it has become very common in this age of modernization. Some cities in the South East Asian countries like Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand is known for its sex industry. The term prostitute who now appears to be out of date and a more humane terms are now commercial sex work. The term was introduced to indicate that if any other work, prostitution is also an industry in which the individual is mainly due to factors beyond the ability of their individual, forced to sell their bodies to earn money for a living.
As some studies indicate, the history of prostitution in Ethiopia dates back to increasing urbanization and the introduction of the Italian colonization. Commercial sex work has now become a major social pathology in the country. Urban centers like Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Nazareth, Shashemene, Dire Dawa, among others, the main center of commercial sex acts. A recent media transmission announced in Nazareth Town, there are about 3,500 commercial sex workers. Multiple sexual partnerships and commercial sex work, is the most obvious route for the spread of STDs and HIV / AIDS. The approach to this social problem at the root cause is therefore really do help in the fight against the spread of HIV / AIDS.
The reasons of commercial sex work is usually poverty, harmful traditional practices such as early marriage, forced marriage and marriage by kidnapping, among others. Dysfunctional marriages, entrenched poverty and economic dependence often bring women into prostitution; and this in turn may contribute to the spread of STDs, including HIV / AIDS on women and the general population. Young girls from rural areas are often flee to urban centers aggressive social and cultural conditions in rural areas. End they are involved in commercial sex work to earn money.
3. unemployment
Governments in developed and undeveloped countries faced with increasing social problem of unemployment as well these days. Unemployment in Ethiopia has become one of the major social problems. Unemployed are people who are currently looking for a paid job and rely on others for their livelihood. There are also other categories such as surplus; These are the people involved in a job that does not match their level of skill or training.
Young people seem to suffer the most from social problems. Of those who completed the 10th or 12th grade in Ethiopia, a few steps colleges and universities. Even graduates with diploma and degree, many stay longer in search of employment. The problem of unemployment has many negative effects on the unemployed and society as a whole. Despair and frustration can lead to many self-destructive and anti-social behavior and actions,
such as drug addiction, alcoholism, organized crime (such as theft), suicide, and violence against women, stealing and begging.
4. Youth and Drug Addiction
The problem of drug addiction is a number one social problem, especially in developed countries. The problem is still widespread in Ethiopia also. It is now common to hear of electronic media and reading the print media that the tradition of using drugs is a growing one of many major urban centers in the country. Recent news on the radio (November 2004) revealed that the city of Nazareth, there are about 75 illegal houses in which the variety sold and used dangerous drugs. The drug is often tradition associated with the growth of night clubs, bars and the possibility of multiple sexual partnerships are also very high.
Chat, a local mild narcotic plant, has become a very common type of drug for many young people and adults. Many have become dependent on stimulant drugs and apparently without the number will not perform well their work. Studies show that the instant chewing is associated with many mental and physical health. The growing number of mentally disturbed people who roam a lot of chat of the plant, through the streets of some urban centers such Jimma, Awassa, Dilla and other cities in southern Ethiopia.
5. Rural-urban migration, refugees and health problems
Ethiopia as Sub-Saharan African countries have a profound impact of waves of migration to better understand the political, economic, ecological and socio-cultural context experienced by the contemporary world. The main event in the area of ​​the Ethiopians in international migration is the period after the collapse of the (Ethiopian) imperial rule and the beginning of the communist-oriented, revolutionary regime of the Dergue regime. What might be called the Ethiopian Diaspora on the world scene came in the late 1960s and 1970s. Countless Ethiopians especially intellectuals fled the country forced migrants mainly in the United States, and also scattering over the world. The continuous flow of Ethiopian migrants as part of international migration, mainly driven by the quest for a better chance in life, often hidden under the front of the fleeing political persecution still continues unabated. The impact on the socio-economic landscape of the country, whether it is negative or positive, it is incalculable, especially the migration of intellectuals and the resulting brain drain is not easy.
The various ethno-linguistic groups in the country are engaged in migration and population movement since time immemorial for a multitude of reasons. Migration in both micro and macro levels between regions and within regions, from rural to urban and vice versa, from the urban to urban and rural countryside, they remained until now. The following are important areas in the drama of internal migration in the country,
• actions of the government in the relocation of people from one region to another, like a rather massive, involuntary villagization program Dergue if the current EPRDF resettlement program socio-economic development efforts of the country;
• The civil war that raged between the various bodies for a long time;
• Capturing the demised successive imperial system as an empire building agenda;
• The persistent drought and the eternal question romanticized famine and food insecurity in the country;
• The rapidly growing population and resulting resource depletion and environmental degradation;
• Increasing urbanization and the apparent availability of better opportunities therein to act as pull factors; and
• The weakening of traditional socio-cultural and political structure of the different ethnic groups; among others.
The issue of rural to urban migration in Ethiopia is high on the agenda of the federal and regional governments. Ethiopia 1993 National Population Policy clearly defined negative branch migration efforts in developing countries socio-economic. The quality of life in migrant sending and rural communities is greatly deteriorated in the host urban areas of Ethiopia. The large, steady stream of mostly male productive part of rural communities to urban areas has many side effects. Sending areas will face severe labor shortage productive. The receiving area, which has faced little or no adequate social security and employment, is the problem of crime, lack of housing, the growth of urban slums and other unwanted anti-social phenomena.
When we come to the health, migration is an important factor in determining the health status of individuals and groups. People migrate in hopes of better living conditions and health. But too many people end up with poor living conditions and health. It is especially common among the refugees and the lower-level workers. The recent ETV shipping (December 2004) about the harsh conditions of Ethiopian women who live as foreigners in the Arab world is a good example. Many are subject to strict treatment, low wages, physical and mental abuse. Many refugees were subjected to unhygienic living conditions, poor nutrition, the extent of hunger and infectious disease outbreaks. There are cases of sexual harassment and rape also.
Uncontrolled rural-urban migration (stimulated by population) and rapid urbanization leads can also lead to mushrooming of slums and squatter settlements, which in turn increase venerability human disease epidemic.
While migration so may adversely affect the lives of individuals, we must not forget the positive effect on the development of migration, whether internal or international migration. In fact, it is only too well known that people migrate from the Third World to the West have come to make a significant contribution to the economic development of their countries of origin .
6. Congestion and environmental degradation
The Ethiopian population has grown from just 30 million in the early 1960s to about 70 million today. At the current rate of annual growth, which is close to 3%, demographers predict that the doubling of the number itself within a short time. The country is the third most populous in Africa, next to Nigeria and Egypt .
the country's population is not linked to a correspondent economic growth. The country is among the poorest in terms of multiple parameters development such as per capita income, life expectancy, literacy, access to basic health and social services, etc. The uncontrolled population explosion now has become a major threat to natural resources and ecology of the country. It is accompanied by deteriorating ecological conditions caused by deforestation, excessive use of resources, environmental pollution, etc. The persistent drought and famine is one of the consequences of the worsening ecological conditions.
The problem of population explosion and environmental degradation is the most important social issues and the Ethiopian government has taken it as priority areas.
7. The growth of urbanization, urban poverty, housing problems, homelessness and begging
About 15% of the population of Ethiopia live in urban areas. With a development of urbanization, has appeared in many social problems. The problem of urban slums, increasing poor quality of life and poverty, lack of basic social services such as clean water, electricity, communications, housing, etc., and the increasing rate of crime and deviance. Slums centers for undesirable social behavior such as commercial sex work, theft, robbery, drug trafficking and use, health problems, and so on. With the growing number of urban population, access to decent housing is increasingly problematic. Studies show that many urban people live in substandard houses and much more, although access to housing. Thus homelessness has become a growing social problem in many urban centers.
So many people are forced to spend their entire life on the streets. available data show that the number of people crossing the street is increasing rapidly, especially in large urban centers. Here, we can talk about a class of people known as the street. These are the people born to homeless people or people from different parts of the country to urban centers and on the street. The number of elderly people living on the streets is growing.
Health and quality of life of these categories of people are very terrible. Street children and young people are often at risk for contracting STDs, including HIV / AIDS. They have no access to basic social and health services. The primary means of making a living for these categories of people are usually begging and sometimes engage in commercial sex. Poverty itself has become a major social pathology in a number of major urban centers. The problem of begging is especially visible during religious ceremonial days in some large urban centers like Addis Abeba.

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