Tuesday, 31 October 2017

Steps Sociological Research

In general, there are about seven steps in making a sociological study. These measures are usually sociology alone. It should also be noted that these steps are not developed before. Some of these steps may not necessarily be followed in a number of research projects. He steps not be placed in the correct order.
1. Identification of Research Problem
The first step in doing sociological research (for that matter, another study) is to produce a problem. Identification of research problem basically involves choosing a topic of research. The roads and ways in which researchers identify a problem and choose a topic depends on different factors. The research interest of sociologists, often caused by their own experiences and observations (Howard and Dunaif-Hattis, 1992). The initial ideas for research may therefore at any time and place for a researcher. Walking down the street, reading newspapers, watching television, etc. can indicate a research subject for observation and curious person (Mann, 1976).
Once a research topic comes to our mind, we have the following questions:

• Is it researchable?

• Is the sociological / socially important?

• What's new about it?

• What is the fill that gap?

• Is it manageable in terms of time, money, expertise and other resources? In other words, you have the necessary resources to do the research?
If you can adequately answer these and other related questions, then you are on the right track to conduct an investigation.

2. Literature Review
This step is familiar or orient themselves with the concepts, theories and done about the subject work recognized. Relevant literature on the subject should be chosen assessed; We also need to examine what works already done by others, some gaps remain, some questions remain unanswered, and more

Research work is progressing normally by reviewing previous work on a particular research problem is identified. The researcher will have to work past that his question is to review the increase (Dooley, 1995). The traditional dominant source for literature became libraries and documentation centers where books and various reference findings recorded way. Today most libraries maintain a computerized database, to which reference has been made available online through electronic means. Literature search has become easier, for computerization of library resources; they can easily access the Internet connection is available (Rosnow and Rosenthal, 1996)

Literature search is necessitated by the fact that a researcher is probably not the first person to build interest in a particular issue; and so he should get some time to spend in the library go some theories and methods others have used the subject in the past and what the findings are (Macionis, 1997). According to Marshall and Rossman (1989: 35), the review of the literature the following four objectives:

First, it shows the underlying assumption behind the general question .... Second, it shows that researchers are thoroughly informed about relevant research and intellectual traditions that surround and support the study. Third, it shows that the researcher some gaps in previous research which has identified the proposed study will fill a demonstrated need. And finally, the revision refines and redefines the research and related assumptions carefully by embedding these questions in greater empirical tradition.
3.  Hypothesis Formulation

Hypothesis is a statement that can be proved to be correct or incorrect. Hypothesis formulation involves identifying the main purpose of research and identifying research. It must be tested empirically. We set some guiding assumptions of the investigation at this stage. We ask some basic questions. However, we note that it may not always be the case. This type of screening can determine whether the hypothesis is necessary or not. For example, exploratory learning theory may not be necessary.

4. Selection and designing methods of data collection

Here, the researcher defines data collection methods and preparing data collection instrument. He / she chooses from various methods of data collection. There are basically two types of methods: quantitative methods and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods focused on measuring the amount of information, terms such as prevalence, magnitude, rate, frequency, magnitude, etc. are very important. On the other hand, qualitative methods aimed depth and quality of data. The complex, detailed and sensitive issues; beliefs, attitudes and knowledge dimensions etc are usually studied by qualitative methods.

5. Making data Gathering Activities
 This is the step that researchers engaged in collecting the data required by different methods and tools. The researcher goes into the field and collect data. He / she has been training data collectors, monitors the overall collection of data, and so on.

Primary and secondary data, the data thus collected can be of two types. Primary data from the first hand and the original information; The researcher collects them firsthand. These are collected by sociology during their own research using research tools such experiments, research, questionnaires, interviews and observation (Chapman, 2000). On the other hand, secondary data collected by a person such documents or records in a different way with different resources. These include: official statistical documents, media sources (such as electronic media - radio, television, movies, etc., and print media such as newspapers, magazines, posters, brochures, flyers, to Sign maids, etc.)
 Some of the methods for collecting data on sociology include:
 Explore: One of the dominant quantitative methods, the method of research, which includes sampling, impersonal data collection and advanced statistical analysis. Of all the social science research methods, survey research seems likely to be the most visible and pervasive form of research in social sciences (Jones, 1995). . In survey research, people who provide information named as respondents, (unlike anthropology, we call informers); respondents are often selected on a random basis, where all members of a population have equal opportunity to be included in the study population.
 There are three types of survey research: cross-sectional study, which aims to find out what advice survey participants about groups in society have few symptoms at some point of time his research represents solid reflection of one moment in time.
Longitudinal study in the same sort of people for a long period of time, sometimes as long as 20 to 30 years. This type gives us a moving picture of changes over time in a given area. The third type is called a panel survey alternative versions of longitudinal surveys. It usually takes a shorter time and ask questions of the panellists on a frequent basis. A panellist can ask that question every month for a few years, while in longitudinal research, people often ask once a year (Moore, 2001).
Traditionally, research methodology considered the domain of disciplines such as sociology, psychology, political science and economics, which often works primarily on large, complex and densely populated communities, unlike the anthropologist traditionally in small communities.

Experiment: The quantitative methods are sometimes used in sociology. Sociologists conduct experimental studies, in accordance with the procedures and principles of the experiment. This is usually done to discover cause and effect relationship between one and the other social phenomena. What causes what? What is the effect of a social phenomenon on the other side?

Key Informant Interview: This is a qualitative method where a knowledgeable person in the study site or call the community and interviewed by a researcher or data collector. Interview Questions session can be prepared in advance or sometimes just guiding theme is prepared for the session. This method is similar to the in-depth interview; an individual will be contacted and interviewed in most cases simultaneously. Finally, the researcher / interviewer delve into issues (Macionis, 1997).

Focus Group Discussion: This is a form of qualitative methods of collecting data that would use the explicit relationship dynamics between group members, which can provide valuable information on specific subjects. This qualitative method of data collection is so popular in particular, in recent decades; it is most used by researcher’s transversal areas such as public health, anthropology and other behavioral science discipline.

Case Study: This method involves researching a particular issue as a case takes more time and investigates the phenomenon in depth. A case study is about an individual, a social group, a family or an organization. The selected cases are considered representative of a group or wider context in which it is derived. This method may involve elements of both quantitative and qualitative aspects.

Observation: This qualitative technique involves collecting data on social phenomena through careful observation of social processes, events, activities, behaviors, actions, etc. they take place . All the relevant events, actions, places, things, and others should be observed and recorded (Marshall and Rossman, 1989). One of the most important techniques in these methods, participant observation, life active participation in the community while studying. The researcher is participating in a research institution with regard to what happens in setting (Henslin and Nelson, 1995). A variant of this process is non-participatory observation - collect data, without participation in the Forum, informants or subjects.
Unobtrusive Measures: Most of the researches methods are intrusive, meaning that the data is collected, while action behavior the subject 'was noticed immediately, and they know they are investigating. To the risk of interference action research on the subject of study and thereby avoiding the influence of research, sociologists have developed what is called non-intrusive measures. When an investigator takes unobtrusive measures, human behavior has been observed as they are not aware of.

Here, this method is an approach that does not interfere with the study of objects or events. Sociologist study of many social phenomena using methods such as how people behave in the public arena, the way people wear and decorate themselves, the way they sit or stand in relation to others , etc. (Rosenberg, et al, 1987).

6. Data Organization, analysis, interpretation, and report writing
The most difficult task is how to manage, process, store and gently controlling the raw data as possible. Data may be lost if not properly treated. The researcher here safely stores the data it manages, organizes and controls systematically.

Different methods of data analysis are both qualitative and quantitative methods (Henslin and Nelson, 1995). For quantitative data the researchers used advanced statistical techniques using computer models. Plans for data analysis is often even before the data is collected (Mann, 1976).
Analysis of qualitative data actually starts, while researchers in the field of recording his / her field note, tape recording and transcribing interviews. Tape recording and transcription of the interview process is the essential element analysis (Jones 1995). Data analysis, the researchers studied must distinguish between his own views and the views of the people (and Scupin Decorse, 1995). There are many possible analytical schedules and some computer models for analyzing qualitative data is also available. After the data to a computer for easy processing, tabulation and analysis is introduced, the researcher interprets the data and writes the findings. The hypotheses to be tested comparison is made with similar types of studies have been performed elsewhere, or done before, to draw conclusions and recommendations are made, depending on the type of examination, such as basic or applied.

7. A dispersion of research
This is the last step that researchers share findings with relevant bodies. Disseminating research finding through the scientific journals, seminars, symposia, conferences and other forums.

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