Before, During, and After Reading Strategies

The reading process involves three phases: Before Reading, During Reading, and After Reading. This basic model can be used whether students are reading expository or narrative text.

Before Reading:
  • Identify what you know about the topic. List specific ideas.
  • Write specific questions which you would like answered.
  • Make specific predictions about what you think you will learn.
  • Preview the selection with attention to bold print, captions, and graphics.
During Reading:
  • Generate mental pictures about what you are reading.
  • Summarize what you have just read.
  • Try to answer the questions you asked.
  • Alter your predictions.
  • Identify items or facts which are confusing. Reread to try and clear up confusions.

After Reading:
  • Create a final summary of what you have learned.
  • State how you can use the information you have learned.
  • Revisit text for clarification.
  • Respond to questions.
SQ3R is a five-step study plan to help students construct meaning while reading. It uses the elements of questioning, predicting, setting a purpose for reading, and monitoring for confusion. SQ3R includes the following steps:

1. Survey
  • Think about the title: “What do I know?” “What do I want to know?”
  • Glance over headings and first sentences in paragraphs.
  • Look at illustrations and graphic aids.
  • Read the first paragraph.
  • Read the last paragraph or summary.
2. Question
  • Turn the title into a question.
  • Write down any questions that some to mind during the survey.
  • Turn headings into questions.
  • Turn subheadings, illustrations, and graphic aids into questions.
  • Write down unfamiliar vocabulary words and determine their meaning.
3. Read Actively
  • Read to search for answers to questions.
  • Respond to questions and use context clues for unfamiliar words.
  • React to unclear passages, confusing terms, and questionable statements by generating additional questions.

4. Recite
  • Look away from the answers and the book to recall what was read.
  • Recite answers to questions aloud or in writing.
  • Reread text for unanswered questions.
5. Review
  • Answer the major purpose question.
  • Look over answers and all parts of the chapter to organize information.
  • Summarize the information learned by drawing flow charts, writing a summary, participating in a group discussion, or by studying for a test.