Definition: a model is a recognizable representation of a real thing three dimensionally, that is height, width, and depth is felt as reality. 
 Types of models:
1.      Solid models: it is the replica of an original thing made with some suitable material like clay, plaster of Paris, wood, iron etc. to show the external parts of the things. Ex: globe, clay model of human and animal.
2.      Cutaway and x-ray models: are the replicas of the original things to show internal parts of a thing. Cross sectional models are difficult to make in the class room or institutions as they require expertise to construct them. Ex: cross sectional model of human body.
3.      Working models: these models are either actual working things or their miniature replicas. For illustrating an operation. Ex: a motor, a generator.
4.      Sand models: made by using sand, clay, saw dust, ex: a tribal village, a forest area.
·          Models heighten reality of things and make learning direct and meaningful as they are three dimensional.
·         Models illustrate the application side of certain principles and laws.
·         Models explain the complex and intricate operations in a simplified way and thus make comprehension easier.
·         Models are lasting and ultimately work out to be cheaper teaching aids.
·         Still models are easy to make with the help of discarded materials like empty boxes, pins, clips, nails, and clay.
·         Models are to reasonable size and convenient to handle.
·         Models involve the use of all the five senses and thus make learning effective.
·         It requires expertise to make.
·         Time consuming.
·         Some of the models may be very expensive.
                      A collection of real things for instructional use refers to objects.
A specimen is a sample of the real object or a material.
Using objects and specimens: while using the specimen and objects as teaching aids, a teacher must keep the following points in her mind.
·         Plan your teaching with certain simple and direct observations of the object or specimen being referred to.
·         Ask questions from the students to elicit more details of the features of the object or specimen under observation.
·         Clarify and emphasize important structural details of the object or specimen under observation
·         Provide review and practice to make learning permanent.
Sources of objects and specimens:
·         Local markets
·         Manufacturers and factories
·         Discarded material from  the houses
·         Specimen found in the nature can be collected by students from field trips and nature hunt
·         Plasters casts can be purchased
·         Wild flowers, leaves shells, stones butterflies moths, insects can also be procured.
Mounting the objects and specimens:
                    Objects and specimens should be mounted in shallow boxes in an artistic way and the boxes should be covered with cellophane paper. Also label each object or specimen using self adhesive paper.
Advantages of objects and specimens:
·         Collection of objects and specimens by students requires interaction with others leading to development of social skills and values.
·         Students when collect and display objects and specimens derive satisfaction of contributing to the school and teacher something worthwhile.
·         Student’s power of observation and first hand experiences is enhanced by collection of objects and specimens.
·         Student’s personal collection of objects and specimens can be good source of doing investigatory projects.
·         Collection of objects and specimens become an interesting educational pursuit of the teacher and students alike.
·         It arouse some interest among students in learning
·         Objects and specimens involve all the five senses in the process of learning
·         It heighten the reality in the class room
·         It makes teaching lively.
                        Many times in the school, a department of the school or a class put up their work for showing it to the people out side the school, and such a show called exhibitions.
The pieces of work done by the students for an exhibition are called exhibits.
Requisites for exhibition:
·         The exhibition should have a central theme with a few sub themes to focus attention to a particular  concept
·         The exhibits should be clean , labeled properly
·         The concepts  of contrast  in color and size should be used  for lying out the exhibitions
·         The exhibits should be so placed so the most visitors , can see them
·         The place and exhibits should be well lighted
·         To capture attention and interest of visitors , both motion and sound  should be utilized
·         The exhibition should have some exhibits with operative mechanism such as switches, handles, to be operated by the visitors to observe some happenings.
·         The exhibition should include lot of demonstrations as they involve deeply the students and the visitors
·         The exhibition should be able to relate various subjects’ areas to provide integrated learning.
·         Exhibitions inspire the students to learn by doing things themselves and they get a sense of involvement
·         Exhibitions give students a sense of accomplishment and achievement
·         Exhibitions develop social skills of communication , cooperation, coordination
·         Exhibitions foster  better school community relations and make community members  conscious about the school
·         Exhibitions couple information with pleasure
·         Exhibitions foster creativity among students.
·         Requires thorough preparation
·         Time consuming
·         Require funds or budget.
A museum is a building displaying a collection of historical relics, antiques, curiosities, works of arts, works of science, literature and other artifacts of general interest.
Museums can be useful both for public education and specific class room instructions.
Setting up school museum:
·         School should have enough space
·         Take the help of students, collect old and new objects and articles
·         Accept donations from various organizations who donates the articles
·         Students can be guided to prepare the exhibits
·         All the collected and prepared articles should be displayed and labeled
·         A detailed report book should be maintained giving a brief description  of each museum pieces
·         The museum rooms should be well lighted
·         It should be cleaned and maintained timely.
A diorama is a three dimensional arrangement of related objects, models, and cut outs to illustrate a central theme or concept.
The objects and models are generally placed in a big box or show case with a glass covering and background printed with a shade or a scene. Ex: a harvest scene, a planting scene etc.
·         Provide a good opportunity to learn
·         It gives the appearance of actual things which can not be brought to the class room
·         Interesting and enhance creativity
·         Live things also  can shown in diorama ex: aquarium
·         Provides students to do project works
.sometimes cost effective
·         Needs expatriation  for the preparation
·         Require budget
·         Sometimes it may misguide the student if is not the replica of actual thing.
It emphasizes the functional relationship between the device reality and its workability. Certain element of the original reality is emphasized to make it more meaningful for the purpose of instruction.
In common usage, a mockup is a scale model of a structure or device, usually used for teaching, demonstration, testing a design, etc.
Mockups are also used in the Consumer goods industry, as part of the product development process, when the size, impression and/or artworks have to be tested and approved.
Mockup is also a frequently used term when talking about an early layout or sketch of a Web site or GUI program.
 Ex: An artificial kidney to demonstrate dialysis.
Mould can be made up of plastic material to stimulate some life in objects. ex: body which shows evidence of trauma, infection, disease, surgical intervention.
The basic material we use to create our soft tissue injuries is very inexpensive; it costs only pennies per simulation.
If someone walks off with a simulation it can be recreated in a matter of minutes!
You are not limited to mass-produced latex or plastic "one-size-fits-all injuries".  You determine the type, scope and
Size of the injuries and create as many as you wish, in whatever size you need.
Our simulations can be handled and bandaged, with care, as you would a real injury. The simulations will not shift and/or be damaged. When bandages are removed, the injury simulation will remain intact.
The simulations can be made liquid-proof, and with care - reusable!
                      One of the old and popular arts in Indian villages is puppetry. Puppetry is an education cum entertaining aid in which puppets manipulated by the performer is a person termed as a characters in a story to be depicted.
 A puppet is a manipulative doll dressed as a character and the performer is a person termed as a puppeteer. A good puppeteer has to blend his art with dramatization to produce the desired effect. It is used as an effective teaching aid for languages and social sciences.
Types of puppets
1. String or marionettes puppets:-Marionettes consist of puppets with hinged body parts which are controlled by nine strings produces required movements in the puppet. These puppets are mainly manipulated by professional puppeteers.
2. Stick puppets: - stick puppet are the painted cutouts attached by sticks. The actions of these puppets are manipulated by the teacher and students by hiding behind a screen so that only puppets are visible to the audience or the class.
3. Shadow puppets: - shadow puppets are silhouettes of cardboard which produce shadows on white screen. The motion of these silhouettes is manipulated by the teacher and students.
4. Finger of hand puppet: - Hand puppets are round balls painted as heads with overflowing colorful costumes. These are worn on fingers which operate their movements. These are operated from below the stage.
In writing or selecting a puppet play, the age, background and tastes of the students should be taken in to consideration. A short puppet play is always preferable.
1) Creates interest
2) Gives the knowledge in a brief period
3) Puppet is an effective method in teaching.
4) Motivate students
5) Easy to carry and operate
1) Needs group cooperation and coordination
2) Requires skills in preparation and supply
3) Skills needed in presentation