Introduction to Management

What is management?
 We do not hare unified views of authorities on what are the managerial functions and what is management precisely. The difference of opinion and approach are reflected in the following often quoted definitions of management.
1.     “To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”. _____    Henry Fayol.
2.     “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and manages managers, and manages workers and work”.____     P. Drucker.
3.     “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things”. ________ Appley L.
4.     “Management is principally a task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others toward a specific objective”.         ____ J. Lundey.
5.     Management is decision making”.
6.     Management is defined as the certain and maintenance of internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working together in groups, can perform efficiently and effectively toward the attainment of group goals”. _______ Koontz and O’ Don ell.
                       Generalized Definition of Management
“Management is an ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organization (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions. (Planning, organizing, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, viz, output of goods and services desired by its customers (environment).
In the process work is performed with and through personnel of the organization in an ever changing business environment”.
A working definition of management is as follows:
“Management is a continuous process through which the members of an organization seek to coordinate their activities and utilize their resources in order to fulfill the various tasks of the organization as efficiently as possible”.
                              If we see the above stated definition we will find the following key words:-
v Process ________ negotiating, bargaining, persuading and communicating activities.
v Organization ________it is used to refer to an institution.
v Coordination________ integration and unifying of all activities being run in an institution.
v Members’ ________ organizational membership of the school includes the teaching staff and the pupils.
v Task _________ activities such as transmission of knowledge, the inculcation of values, the encouragement of self- expression and so forth.
v Efficiency __________ main aim of improving of the management of industrial concern is to improve efficiency and hence output.

The term management refers to all human activities which are related to making arrangement for achieving a certain objective on co-operation with a number of individuals who work in group in a coordinated manner.
As regards the management objectives, it may be noted that it differs from organization to organization. Objectives are achieved by managing the use of resources (i.e. money, men, material etc).effectively and diligent ally.
Again management is also taken to mean a process through which a given objective is achieved by making others to work. Management is the collective name of all the activities viz planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
According to Koontz and O’ Don ell:
“Managing is the art of doing and management is the body organized knowledge which underlines the art”.
 Planning simply means” The preparing program for coordinate actions towards the achievement of a certain goal”. Organizing refers to forming of the working group. Staffing refers to allocation of assignment, directing refers to guidance and giving instructions relating to the situations which develop when work is in progress and controlling signifies getting others to maintain the prescribed norm or standard of efficiency.
All these human activities constitute its subject matter.

          Difference between Admin and Management
1.     Administration has a limited scope and is a part of management.
Management has a wider scope and covers the activities related to managing the resources since the inception of the enterprise and continues till it ceases to exist.
2.     Administration refers to the act of applying the principles of management.
Management is the collective name of all the activities which made to provide a base for administration.
3.     Administration is said to include the controlling aspect of the working process of an industry or a firm or a govt, Dept.
Management includes planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling aspect of enterprise.
4.     Administration refers to the execution of a policy.
Management arranges the formulation of such policy.
5.     Administration includes only the application of the resources to a working process.
Management refers to the arrangement and application of resources to a working process.
6.     Administration refers to t application of a technique to a particular field of operation.
Management includes determination of technique and also its application to cover all activities of an organization.