Basic steps of educational research

1.         The research problem:

A researcher must first decide on the general problem area. This step is often difficult for researchers to start. Obstacles is not due to a lack of problems, but in fact the beginners must choose a problem early, when their understanding of how to do research is the most limited.            
Educational research start with the selection of a problem that the researcher identifies from the area or field of is interest. The problem should be such that can be clearly stated. The statement of the problem must be complete. It must be presented in forms that make absolutely clear what data or evidence must be obtained in order to solve the problem.

     2.      Formulation of hypothesis:

 Educational research should make use of carefully formulated hypothesis. These may be formally stated or implied. In formulating hypothesis, the researcher should keep in mind that the hypotheses are tentative generalization about the nature of the difficulty under consideration, calling attention to fundamental relationship or possible solution. The manner of formulating hypothesis is an important aspect of educational research and the researcher should give much thought to it.

     3.      The method to be used:

The selection of research method to be used is of utmost importance in the research process. It refers to the general strategy followed in collecting and analyzing the data necessary for solving of the problem. The researches are generally classified in three categories: 
1. Historical;
 2. Experimental; 
3. Descriptive. 
The method and approach used in this study is dictated by the nature of the problem and type of data required for answering the questions relating to the problem.  

       4.      Data collection:

 Data collection is a crucial step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Each study involves collecting certain types of data. whether they come from the literature or from test subjects - to answer the research question. The data can be collected in the form of words in a survey, with a questionnaire, through observations or from the literature.
Whereas the research method describes the overall approach to the problem, this step concerned with the procedures and techniques to be adopted for data collection. It refers to the nature of sample to be chosen for  study , selection and development of data gathering device such as test , rating scale and interview etc.

        5.      Analysis and interpretation of data:

 Good research is characterized by the care taken in the analysis and interpretation of data. It includes the selection of  appropriate qualitative and quantitative techniques to be used for processing the data collected for the study.  
The amount of data is usually in the form of numbers analyzed by researchers using different statistical methods. Even verbal data, such as compositions written by high school students, will be converted to a numerical form through the grading process. The analysis of numerical data on quantitative research provides evidence that supports the theory of study or support. Typical data usually takes the form of words like descriptions, observations, impressions, recordings, etc. The researcher should arrange and provide a category or encode large amounts of data so that it can be explained and interpreted. Even though qualified researchers are not concerned with statistics, the study of comparable data is not easy. It is a long and very good process.
        6.      Reporting the result:

 This is the last and important step of the educational research process. It is characterized by carefully formulated conclusions. The researcher must report his procedures and findings with utmost objectivity to others who may be interested in his study and its results.
The researcher finally has data to study so that the research question can be answered. In the plan for the use of tools, the researchers determined how the data should be checked. The researcher now analyzes data according to the plan. The results of this assessment will be assessed and communicated in a way that is directly related to research questions.