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Types of Grading and Reporting Systems


  1. Traditional letter-grade system
    • Easy and can average them
    • But of limited value when used as the sole report, because:
a.      they end up being a combination of achievement, effort, work habits, behavior
b.     teachers differ in how many high (or low) grades they give
c.      they are therefore hard to interpret
d.     they do not indicate patterns of strength and weakness
  1. Pass-fail
    • It is two-category marking system (e,g  satisfactory - un satisfactory , pass – fail)
  1. Checklists of objectives
    • Most common in elementary school
    • Can either replace or supplement letter grades
    • Each item in the checklist can be rated: Outstanding, Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory; A, B, C, etc.
    • Problem is to keep the list manageable and understandable
  1. Letters to parents/guardians
    • Useful supplement to grades
    • Limited value as sole report, because:
a.      very time consuming
b.     accounts of weaknesses often misinterpreted
c.      not systematic or cumulative
  • Great tact needed in presenting problems (lying, etc.)
  1. Portfolios
    • Set of purposefully selected work, with commentary by student and teacher
    • Useful for:
a.      showing student’s strengths and weaknesses
b.     illustrating range of student work
c.      showing progress over time or stages of a project
d.     teaching students about objectives/standards they are to meet
  1. Parent-teacher conferences
    • Used mostly in elementary school
    • Portfolios (when used) are useful basis for discussion
    • Useful for:
a.      two-way flow of information
b.     getting more information and cooperation from parents
  • Limited in value as the major report, because
a.      time consuming
b.     provides no systematic record of progress
c.      some parents won’t come

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