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What is Project Management? (Second part)


  LEVELS OF PROJECT MANEGMENT
There are three variation to the project management life cycle. which cycle you use in a given project depend on what management need you are trying to meat.
DEFINEING ,PLANNING ,ORGANIZING
This first and simplest of the three cycles is concerned with getting the project going. We have encountered the number of situations in which one person will be solely responsible for completing all project activities. in such cases there is value in planning the project but limited value in implementing the control and close phases here the project manager and client are the same person  and interest is only lying out a strategy for doing the work. Often project falling this cycle will have to be planed  in conjunction with one or more other projects.
DEFINEING ,PLANNING ,ORGANIZING CONTROLING.
The second cycle is most often thought of an project management.
Getting the project started is only half(ornately much less then half) of the effort .the more people the more activities and the more resources involved. the more likely the project manager will need to follow with the control function a mechanism need to be in place to identify problems early on and do something to keep the project moving ahead as planned.
DEFINEING, PLANNING, ORGANIZING, CONTROLING,closing.
The astute project manager will want to learn from the project that follow this cycle several question will be answered from an audit of the record from completed project
Quality management.
IN order to meet customer requirements and do so on time and with in budget, the project manager must incorporate sound quality management practices he or she will be concerned with  the quality of the following
·        The product /service/ process that is the deliverable from the project.
·        The project management process itself
Our emphasize is on the two tool and and techniques that we have successfully integrated and used in our consulting practice to improve the process of projected management.
Continues quality manegment
Is a  procedures that a company can use to improve its business process .it is a way of life in those organizations that want to attain and sustain a competatitive positions in fast paced in formation age industries continues quality management begin with a vision mission critical success factors, and business process.
Process quality management .
Is used to relate critical success factors to business processes. this establish the foundation on which the continuous quality management model proceed to conduct a gap analysis that identify process and  steps with in process  her improvement opportunities might be made. any number of improvement project can be undertaken  and the resulting improvements are checked against targeted improvements and further projects commissioned .because new improvement  opportunities always present themselves. A series of feedback loops continues the process.
·        RISK MANAGEMENT.
(A risk is a further happening that results in a change in the environment.)it has associated with a loss that can be estimated , a probability that the event will occur, which can be estimated and a choice of a project manager part as to what to do if anything that reduced the risk that will occur.
The risk management process answers the following questions.
·        What are the risks?
·        What are alternatives?
·        What might the losses be if the worst happened?
·        How can the losses be reduced and eliminated.
·        Will the alternative produced other risk
The business decision is to assess how the expected loss compares to the cost of defraying all or some of the loss and then taking appropriate action.
In a 1995 study the STANDISH GROUP surveyed more then 1000 IT managers on reasons why project fail. the top 10 reasons are
·        Incomplete requirements
·        Lack of user involvement
·        Lack of resources.
·        UN realistices expectations.
·        Lack of executive support.
·        Changing requirements and specifications.
·        Lack of planning.
·        Elimination of need for the project
·        Lack of IT management.
·        Technology illiteracy.
To increase the likelihood of project success, the project team must put in place a program that address theses risks. this program can include the following steps.
Ø Identify risk areas and the constituent risk factor in each areas.
Ø Assess the risks factors identified and the probability of occurrence and potential damage
Ø Assign appropriate resources to reduce the risks factors.
Ø Select the most promising alternative for each risks factor.
Ø Obtain t feedback to determine the success the risks reducing action for each risks factor

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