Factors Affecting Performance Appraisal

There are various factors which may influence the performance appraisal system in any organization. There are some factors which introduce bias whereas; some other factors hinder purposeful assessment. Such factors are as follows:
1.     Value System of Evaluator:
The task of evaluator is to assess the work of subordinate and write reports of the same. They are projected to do this for some purposeful assessment. It happens that evaluator sometime judges the performance on the basis of their own value system.
Each person has his own value system and socio-cultural environment. Mostly, it is found that the reports are influenced by the evaluator’s value-system. This subjective element has lot of impact on final report.
2.     Dominant Work Orientation:
The performance Appraisal Report of a subordinate is prepared by a superior is found to have an impact by the dominant work orientation of the superior officer. Sometimes there is more emphasis on certain aspect of the work as compared to other aspect which may be equally important by the superior. It introduces subjectivity performance appraisal system. A superior may evaluate the subordinate on the basis of following elements:
a) Inclination for work of dynamic nature.
b) Liking for routine work and strict maintenance of.
c) Importance on inter-personal relations and rank.
d) Emphasis on qualities which do not have much functional utility; and
e) Emphasis on consistency to some philosophy.
These elements bring subjectivity in the process of evaluation, influence the judgment of the superior and distort the evaluation of performance of the subordinates.
3.     Loyalty:
It plays a vital role in evaluating employee. An Employee shows loyalty due to many reasons such as common values, objectives, emotional needs, interests, caste, religion, language or region. Loyalty brings the superior and the loyal subordinate closer and closer to each other, and creates distance between those employee who are not loyal to their superior. This makes assessment of superior to be biased.
4.     Level of Achievement:
Subordinates evaluation may also depend on the level of achievement of the superior. If there is a vast difference between the level of achievement of the superior and  subordinate, then it can create problems of adjustment and purpose for which evaluation is done is not achieved.
5.     Factors Hindering Objective Assessment:
There are various factors which obstruct the objective appraisal of the performance of the subordinates. These factors are as follows:
a) Superiority complex of the superior reporting officer.
b) Overall performance assessment do not take place only certain incidence are assessed.
c) Past-record of the subordinate.
d) Personality of the subordinate.

g) Ability of the subordinate to exercise influence at higher level.