Format of Abstract

A summary of a research report or thesis is prepared in the form of abstract. It provides the brief description of main points of research report. The main theme is given in the abstract of a research work. Its size varies from 4 to 12 pages, but there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. It should be able to communicate the whole work comprehensively.
 There are two formats for preparing abstract:
       a)      First Type Format:
Includes main points and theme of research work in brief. It includes the following points: Introduction, main body of the text and conclusions. The introduction part covers the problem, adjectives, hypothesis and theoretical aspect. The main body of the text includes method sample techniques, tools used results. The last part of abstract provides the conclusions of the study in the statement form along with their implications in the field. This type of format is used in scientific studies in the discipline of education.
        b)     Second Type Format:
 Includes the summary of the chapters of the research report. The main theme of each chapter is given in this type of format of abstract. This format is used in philosophical, historical and descriptive type of research in the area of education.
Usually a research abstract consists of three main parts:
• Introduction,
• Main Body of the report, and
• Conclusions.
The introductory part emphasizes the significance of the problem, objectives and hypotheses (if any) of the study. The main body includes methods, sampling, techniques, tools and results of the study. The last part provides contributions or conclusions of the study. The implication of the findings are also highlighted at the end. The structure of the report is also given and most important references are also written in the form of bibliography. The abstract is written in past tense and in the third person.