Management and Disaster-Related Issues and Concerns

           The unintended consequences of human action are described by Chiles (2001). Emergency management should also share his suggestion that we acknowledge the potential adverse impacts technology and the need to ensure human assessment of technology.  
            The terrorist attacks of 2001 have made the business community increasingly sensitive to the impacts of disasters and especially terrorism on domestic and international operations.  Risk management is now a part of any large operation and a dependence on insuring risk is no longer the only contingency.  Businesses are increasingly looking at avoiding disasters and identifying methods to mitigate disasters. 
         The insurance industry has adapted to this changing environment by excluding coverage for terrorism in business policies or calculating the potential costs associated with insuring this risk in their plans.  Most organizations can no longer afford to insure for this risk.  Insurance companies have also reassessed coverage for many natural hazards and taken steps to adequately cover their potential vulnerabilities.   The increased costs to public and private organizations for insuring against hazards has increased to the point that it may impact business plans and future strategies.