Non-Experimental Research

q    Research in which the experimenter  does not have complete control over  the conditions of the study
q   Researcher gives up some control in order to get the data
q   “Correlational research”
q Non-experimental research is research that lacks the manipulation of an independent variable, control of extraneous variables through random assignment, or both. There are three broad types of non-experimental research. Single-variable research focuses on a single variable rather than a relationship between variables.
Types of Non-Experimental Research
I. Pure descriptive design
Obtain information about a current existing phenomenon of interest in terms of frequency of occurrence rather than to describe a relationship between variables.
II. Correlational descriptive research
design Explores the interrelationship between variables of interest without any active intervention or manipulation of the independent variable by the researcher.
III. Other non-experimental research designs:
a) Surveys:
“Studies in which information is obtained from a population or sample of individuals by means of self-report ”.
Self reporting means that the subjects responses to a series of questions posed by the researcher.
b) Needs assessment:
A study in which a researcher collects data for estimating the needs of a group, organization, or community.
c) Historical research:
 It answers questions or hypothesis regarding trends, causes, or effects related to past events that may shed light on present behaviors, practices or phenomenon.
Data for such researches are found in written materials whether books, periodicals, journals, reports, newspapers, letters, meetings minutes, photos, films, tapes…etc..
d) Case studies:
 An in-depth investigation of an individual, family, group, or any small social unit. It investigates a current phenomenon within its real life context, especially when the boundaries between the phenomena and its context are not clear.
Case studies address multiple variables that are measured at several points in time.