Self-Regulated Learning

A key concept of constructivist theories of learning is a vision of the ideal student as a self-regulated learner (Paris & Paris, 2001; Weinstein & McCombs, 1995). Selfregulated learners are ones who have knowledge of effective learning  strategies and how and when to use them (Bandura, 1991; Dembo & Eaton, 2000; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997; Winne, 1997). For example, they know how to break complex problems into simpler steps or to test out alternative solutions (Greeno & Goldman, 1998); they know how and when to skim and how and when to read for deep understanding; and they know how to write to persuade and how to write to inform (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1999). Further, self-regulated learners are motivated by learning itself, not only by grades or others’ approval (Boekaerts, 1995; Corno, 1992; Schunk, 1995), and they are able to stick to a long-term task until it is done. When students have both effective learning strategies and the motivation and persistence to apply these strategies until a job is done to their satisfaction, then they are likely to be effective learners (Williams, 1995; Zimmerman, 1995) and to have a lifelong motivation to learn (Corno & Kanfer, 1993).