Steps of classroom Assessment

      There are four interrelated steps to the planning of classroom assessment process.
  Ø  Planning and Organization of Classroom Assessment
  Ø  Developing Specifications for Assessment (table of specification)
  Ø  Principles for the development of Different types of test items
  Ø  Framework for Development of Tests
1.Planning and Organization of Classroom Assessment
      During this period, the teacher considers how the information will be used and how the assessment fits in the students' educational program. The teacher must consider if the primary purpose of the assessment is diagnostic, formative, or summative.
      Decide on the class meeting and select a Classroom Assessment Technique. Choose a simple and quick one.
2. Preparing table of specification (TOS)
      Test map that guides teacher in constructing a test.
      two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered by a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic. 
Ø  Steps in Preparing Table of Specification
1. List down the topics covered for inclusion in the test.
2.  Determine the objectives to be assessed by the test.
3. Specify the number of days/hours spent for teaching a particular topic.
4. determine percentage allocation of the test items for each of the topics covered.
5. Determine the number of the items for each topic. This can be done by multiplying the percentage allocation for each topic by the total number of items to be constructed.
  6. Distribute the numbers to the objectives. The number of items allocated for each    objective depends on the degree of importance attached by the teacher to it. 
 3.Principles for the development of Different types of test items:
      While the different types of questions--best choice, short and long essays, true-false, and matching are constructed differently, the following principles apply to constructing questions and tests in general.
1. simple and brief
2. Use simple and clear language in the questions.
3.Write items that require specific understanding or ability developed in that course, not just general  intelligence or  test-wiseness
4. Do not suggest the answer to one question in the body of another question
5. Identify item topics by consulting test plan (increases content validity)
6.Ensure that each item presents a central idea or problem
7.Write each item in clear and direct manner
8.Use vocabulary and language  appropriate for the target  audience (e.g., age, culture)
9.Make all items independent (e.g.,one question per question)
10.Ask an expert to review items to reduce ambiguity and inaccuracy.
 11.Don't make Classroom Assessment into a burden. 
12.Don't ask your students to use an Classroom Assessment Technique you haven't   previously tried on yourself. 
13.Allow for more time than you think you will need to carry out and respond to the assessment.
4. Framework for Development of Tests
      The framework is laid out in this fashion to represent the cyclical nature of teacher’s work.