Types of Mass Communication

Mass media can be categorized according to physical form, technology involved, nature of the communication process etc. Given below are the major categories of mass media.
1. Print Media
Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the moveable metallic type in the fifteenth century paved the way for proliferation of the print media. The printing press using moveable types introduced the method for mass production of texts. Before the invention of the printing press, books were expensive materials affordable only for the aristocrats and royal families. Printing reduced the cost of books and made them available to the common men also. Rapid duplication of multiple copies of handy texts led to the innovation of modern newspapers.
Print Media include
·         Newspapers
·         Magazines
·         books
·         other textual documents
2. Electronic Media
The history of electronic mass media starts with the invention of radio by Marconi. The first radio station was set up in Pittsburg, New York and Chicago in the 1920s. Following the USA, European countries also started radio stations for broadcasting news and entertainment content. The colonial powers like Briton and France set radio stations in Asian and African countries in the early years of 20th century. The next step in electronic communication media history was the invention of cinema. Following cinema, television broadcasting was initiated in the US on experimental basis during 1920s. But, the dramatic impact of television as a mass medium began in 1950s. Parallel to these, recording industry was also boomed in the western countries. In short, the term electronic media mainly include:
·         Radio
·         Movies
·         Television
·         Audio and Video records
3. New Media
Online and digital means of producing, transmitting and receiving messages are called new media. The term encompasses computer mediated communication technology. It implies the use of desktop and portable computers as well as wireless and handheld devices. Every company in the computer industry is involved with new media in some manner. The forms of communicating in the digital world include
·         CD-RoMs
·         DVDs
·      Internet facilities like World Wide Web, bulleting boarding, email etc.