Observations and Variables

      Observation method is a method under which data from the field is collected with the help of observation by the observer or by personally going to the field.
       In the words of P.V. Young, “Observation may be defined as systematic viewing, coupled with consideration of seen phenomenon.”
      An observation is the value, at a particular period, of a particular variable.
      An individual price, or one of a number of individual prices, collected for an item at an outlet.
      In statistics a unit of observation is the unit described by the data that one analyzes.
      We call a set of data derived from an object (experimental unit) an observation. Each object is measured according to various aspects, such as temperature, concentration of some constituents, frequency of occurrence of some phenomenon, etc. Each of these aspects is denoted as a variable or feature.  By assembling all available data on all objects we can build a matrix - a table where the columns represent the variables and the rows represent the measured observations.