Organizational Components that Need to be Managed

People are the main component of any organization that has to be managed. Every individual has a personal goal to be achieved. Organizations must identify the need spectrum of individuals and take suitable steps for its fulfilment to enable them to perform effectively so that they complete their allotted task in time. Relationship between the workers, with subordinates and superiors should be established based on full understanding and complete faith based on mutual trust so that it is easy to communicate and understand each other’s views. Work teams and Groups play a vital role in the organization. Individual may have to keep his personal interest aside if it conflicts with team or group goals. It is the team goals, accomplishment of which contribute towards achieving organizational goals. Apart from managing internal workforce, it is also important to manage customers who are the end persons using organization’s products or services. Utmost interest of stakeholders, government, employees, social groups and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) must be kept in mind as they play a dominant role in the society. Apart from the above, adequate consideration should also be given to competitors, regulatory agencies, labour force, suppliers and resource persons.
There are two types of organizations, formal and informal. Informal organizations do not have a specified structure. Formal organizations are build based upon the objective set for it. Organizational structure in such organization is hierarchical in nature, with people at each level having their own objectives, which contributes towards fulfillment of over all organizational objectives. In such organisastion people at lower levels report to higher level managers. The tier system has the principle of unity of command inbuilt in it. The organization structure may depend upon the size, number of products/services produced, skill and experience of the employees, managerial staff and geographical location of the organization. An organization may have several levels and pyramid like organizational structure or flat structure. The efficiency of the organization will depend upon the free flow of the information, efficient communication system prevailing in the organization,
well-defined authority and responsibility supported by detailed policies, rules and regulations. The organization must have well laid out systems, which are understood by workers, supervisors and managers. The leader must keep open mind while dealing with subordinates and exercise full control over various systems, levels and ensure planned productivity and achieve high level of job satisfaction.
Managing technology is an important job of any management. It is an important element of any unit. Selection of technology, procurement, installation, operation and maintenance is important and no compromise should be made in procuring latest or advanced technology.
Various systems and sub- systems should support technology that exists in  an organization. Based on the technology, an organization should formulate job structure and resultant procurement of human resource so that they are complimentary to each other. Adequate attention is also be paid to service industry. For example an appropriate drill, procedures are installed in hospital industry to ensure that the patients’ record is maintained properly. On line operations of all systems relating to admission record, past treatment, drugs, availability of beds, schedule of operations maintained so that the level of patients satisfaction is raised. In minimum number of days, maximum numbers of patients should be treated. Various processes required to regulate these functions form the important part of service industry.
Job is an assignment assigned to an individual. It encompasses various tasks within it. For example, Personnel manager wants to fill up twelve vacancies in production department within three months. Job will have various tasks inbuilt in it like designing of job specification, selection of media, advertising vacancies, scheduling of selection and recruiting process. Manager, therefore have to manage various tasks to accomplish a particular job.
This may form a part of managerial functions. Adequate delegation, supervision, application of various control techniques makes the job simpler for the manager. Introduction of computers have made managerial functions simpler, as required information is available for decision making.
Management of processes and its inter-dependence is very crucial to high productivity and higher job satisfaction. What is important for a manager is to ensure high morale of the work force. To ensure this, he must identify various managerial dictums. Select appropriate subordinates to carry out a job based on aptitude, personality traits, mental build up and attitude. He should also involve himself and lead subordinates by personal example. In defence services, it is the quality of leadership, that motivates troops to achieve near impossible task where every thing appears to be going wrong. Various role models assist leaders in identifying as to which process, method or approach would be suitable to mould
subordinates in suitable frame that may be required by any organization. Nothing motivates workers better if you give them their entitlements in full and train them to take up higher jobs. By doing so, manager must develop and build an organizational culture that will bind employees to a common cultural bond. During day-to-day functions, managers must be transparent and maintain a high degree of value system and display ethical behaviour. There are no short cuts to this and will pay rich dividends in times to come.
External Environment
What we have so far discussed is various components of an organization that should be managed properly. External environment also plays an important role in managing the points discussed above. When we talk about managing people in the organization, what we have to study and manage is the influence of culture and its impact on the individual. A manager should examine as to how he is going to cope up with the changes. Study of external environment is very wide and encompasses economic, cultural, social, government rules and regulations, legal aspects, political climate, demographics and its impact. If one scans the external environment that is prevailing in Indian context, one will find that individuals are racing to catch up the upper class as it relates to standards of living, material possession, higher education, attempt to copy western culture, food habits, dressing
pattern and the like. Beauty parlors, pubs and cyber cafes around each corner are an ample evidence of the impact of external environment. This trend has an impact on what products or services are on priority in the society and indicates the behaviour of an individual. If the above factors are evaluated appropriately, a manager will be able to examine and predict human behaviour in the organization. It is therefore important to evaluate market situation, competitors, and availability of raw material, technology, availability of skilled, semi skilled and non-skilled personnel. In addition, evaluate prevailing culture and how individuals are likely to respond to the call of the organization. Some factors like government rules, and political stability keep changing, the organizations must cater for such contingencies. Manager must therefore keep in mind the internal and external factors and make the best amalgam and work to achieve organizational effectiveness.