Helping students to self-regulate
      Metacognition - literally “beyond knowing”, knowing what one knows and doesn’t know - promoting a student’s ability to self-monitor levels of understanding and predict how well (s)he will do on a particular task.
      Self-regulation - students monitoring their own comprehension and assessing their own abilities without teacher help.
      Most closely associated with a teacher’s instructional practices.
      The teacher’s metacognitive practices, if done effectively, can lead to student self-regulation.
      A process in which a person actively searches for relationships and patterns to resolve contradictions or bring coherence out of a set of experiences.
      Contradictions lead to disequilibrium, accommodation, and assimilation.
      Self-regulation begins with exploration, and progresses through invention and application.
      The work of self-regulation calls for students to identify patterns, draw of inferences, and make comparisons.
      Self-regulation is essential in order to increase both declarative and procedural knowledge.
Solid Evidence
      There is ample PER evidence to show that metacognition and self-regulatory practices aid significantly in student learning in PHY.
      Heuristic approaches are often the best, and each student has his or her own.
      Highly effective if integrated into a course (e.g., students talk about practices).
Instructional Strategies - 1
      Characterize performances (S=AiAlME1E2)
      Make students aware they are responsible for their own learning.
      State objectives or learning outcomes.
      Provide practice tests and homework.
      Provide guided practice before homework.
      Have students participate in complex tasks such as presentations and report writing.
Instructional Strategies - 2
      Monitor student progress; provide feedback
      Distinguish deep and surface learning
      Promote reciprocal teaching and reading.
      Provide info about reading techniques.
      Teach content in multiple contexts - reading, discussion, labs, demos, presentations.
      Provide abstract representations.
Instructional Strategies - 3
      Address preconceptions.
      Identify relevant knowledge and skills.
      Explicitly define and characterize metacognitive and self-regulatory approaches.
      Teach mastery skills - provide information about study skills, time and effort.
      Set high expectations for student performance.
Instructional Strategies - 4
      Use mnemonics (e.g., F = mN, Roy G. Biv)
      Informal assessment should focus on making students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students.
      Encourage reflection and revision.
      Provide timely and useful feedback.
      Planning for instruction should include an analysis of required knowledge and skills required for problem solving.
Self-Regulatory Strategies - 1
      Compare performance against a set of performance standards (e.g., salient behaviors)
      Compare performance against stated objectives
      Predict outcomes on various tasks
      Reciprocal reading
      Reciprocal teaching
Self-Regulatory Strategies - 2
      Note failures to comprehend
      Practice tests
      Planning ahead - apportion time and memory
      Promote active listening
      Analysis of problem solving - explain what was done and why
Simple Strategies
      Note taking
      Complex tasks
      Concept mapping
      Peer instruction
      Socratic dialogues
      KWL structures

      Graphical organizers