Sociological Research Methods

Sociology is a science. Consequently, it has been working systematically observe and classify the facts, and establishing verifiable laws. It is like any other science uses the scientific method, which is the source of scientific knowledge. The scientific method is a logical system that is used to analyze the data from systematic observation.
Such as science, the main purpose of sociology is doing research; generate, collect and disseminate scientific knowledge about society and social phenomena. However, there are some people that the scientific status of sociology and other social sciences in doubt. They argue that sociology is not strictly science because the subject is very complex. It is not possible to subject the behavior of people in laboratory manipulations. The people had their own motives and hidden desires and other complex issues.
However, it is generally accepted that sociology is a science in the sense that the main goal is to make scientific research to advance scientific knowledge. Sociology can and must use scientific methods. The scientific method is defined as a method for observing the world critically, collect empirical data and rational analysis and to produce a systematic scientific knowledge.
 The scientific method is an accurate way of designing and conducting research consists of the following basic steps:
"(1) establishing a hypothesis, a general statement based on observed facts;
 2) identifying ways to the hypothesis testing, to include them in the design of the study, and
3) test the theory by further research and observation ... "(Howard and Dunaif-Hattis, 1992)
1. The scientific method Inductive vs. deductive approaches
Sociology as a science uses two main approaches to the design of the study and research on the general framework: inductive and deductive methods. Inductive method is a method in which the first scientist makes observing and collecting data, on the basis of which he formulated a theory and theory (Scupin and Decorse, 1995). The researcher attempts to develop theories from specific comments and agencies. Assignment moving from the particular to the general; where he moved as a deduction from the general to the particular. The deductive approach, the researchers attempt to derive specific allegations and claims of general theoretical principles. In other words, a deductive approach to research is the general theory of their claim (Dooley, 1995: 65-66).

Inductive method
Deductive method
• inductive method is a method in which the first scientist makes observing and collecting data, on the basis of which he formulated a theory and theory.
• In deductive approach, the researchers are trying to specific allegations and claims arising from general theoretical principles.