social mobility

Definition of social mobility
Every society has different layers. Different individuals and groups occupy a particular position in society is not permanent in that position. Some from one position to another, higher social class can make the social class lower, and vice versa. Social mobility implies a series of changes in opportunities, income, lifestyle, personal relationships, social status and the latter class of membership. Social mobility is a form of movement, but it is not a physical movement across geographical space, although that may include social mobility, and brought about by physical mobility. This movement in the social space, moving or changing laws or class position. Social mobility is a social process that occurs between individual members or groups take in society, because they interact. This is a process where the individual or group one position to another; or a class or another layer.
Social mobility describes the quantity and quality of movement between the layers. That's the kind of action that people from different social classes. Our review unit of social mobility can be an individual or a social group or a nation.
 Types of social mobility
Sociologists have identified different types of social mobility. The following is a brief discussion of
the different forms of social mobility .
1. Vertical social mobility
Vertical social mobility is a form of social mobility that individuals experience when they move from their different social status higher or lower social status. This is a radical change in the social position of an individual. It is a movement between different social classes and involves a change in the social position of an individual, a family or a group. It can be up or down.
2. Horizontal social mobility
Horizontal social mobility is also lateral social mobility. It is a movement within a social class or social position where individuals improved slightly and / or decreases in its social position in his / her grade level. Unlike vertical social mobility, it does not involve drastic changes.
Intergenerational social mobility.This form of social mobility, the movement up or down, between social classes one or two generations of a family or social group. This mobility, our attention is a social group, like family. Here we look at the optimum position of the family of two or more generations, that is, the social position of the grandfather, father and son.
3. Intra-generational mobility
It's about individual changes in positions during a person's life. It can also refer to changes that occur in groups or socio-economic position of a country during a given period. In other words, by performing or other means, it is possible that up with a bad teacher that a judge of the high court. Unlike Inter-generational social mobility, intra-generational social mobility is in one generation. But as intergenerational social mobility, it is an upward or downward social mobility. Unlike intergenerational social mobility, our focus is on a particular person or group. Here we see a change in the social position of an individual or a group over the life of the individual or group up or down in some cases. For example, a person can stand on his / her life from a lower position as shoe shining and climbing the social ladder until he becomes a member of a good social and economic position. Or, others may occur once in their losing the prestigious socio-economic position and as a result down until they end up in poverty.
4. Avenues of social mobility
The avenues of social mobility is the door through which a person is moving upward in the social hierarchy. The main road to social mobility in most modern societies, access to appropriate modern education. Change of profession / occupation and geographical mobility is also a possibility. Some sudden opportunity or short cut for social mobility as well. This includes additional benefits in the areas of inheritance, gambling, theft or financial corruption, a winning lottery, etc. Such action is rare, considering that most of the inheritance within the same social group.
The opportunities for upward social mobility is large in modern society have open systems. In such a society, there is freedom of vertical social mobility, and a member of a society can move up or down the social hierarchy. There are no legal and / or traditional restrictions on social mobility in both directions. What counts a great deal of his personal merits, contests and efforts to achieve. On the other hand, vertically, especially upwards, it is difficult in communities with a closed system. In this society, individuals born to be a particular social position in that category for their lives. The main determinants are not individual performance here, right or personal effort, but what matters most is the source of a person's racial background, family background, religion, gender, ethnicity, etc.