Two modes of socialization, adapted from Broom and Selznick (1973)

Repressive Socialization
Participatory Socialization
Punishing wrong behavior
Rewarding good behavior
Material rewards and punishment
Symbolic rewards and punishment
Obedience of child
Autonomy of child
Non-verbal communication
Verbal communication
Communication as command
Communication as interaction
Parent-centered socialization
Child-centered socialization
Child's discernment of parents' wishes
Parents' discernment of child's needs
Family as significant other
Family as generalized other


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