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Sociological theories key concept and its weakness

Sociological theories key concept and its weakness




S.No
Name of the theory
What does it state?
Key concepts
Its weaknesses
1.       
Structural Functionalism
Sees society as a Complex system .Whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
Consensus, social order, structure and function in society.
Emphasis on stability and order While neglecting conflict and changes which so vital in any society
2.       
Social conflict Theory
Sees  society in  a framework of class
Conflicts and focuses on
The struggle for scarce
Resources by different groups in a given society
Class  conflict;
alienation;
competition;
domination
For its overemphasis on inequality and division, for neglecting the fact of   how shared values and interdependence generate unity among members of society; it is also criticized for its explicit political goals.
3.       
Symbolic
interactionism
Stress the analysis of how our behaviors depend on how we define others and
ourselves. It concentrates on process, rather than structure, and keeps the individual actor at the center.
Symbols; processes;
interaction;
meaning
Too much emphasis on micro- level analysis; neglect of larger
social processes




4.       
Feminism
Feminist  sociology focuses on the particular
disadvantages, including
oppression and exploitation faced by women in society
Women; gender; exploitation; male supremacy
Some extreme views such as radical feminism seem unrealistic
5.       
Social Exchange theory
Focuses on the costs and benefits which people obtain in social interaction. It is based on the principle that people always act to maximize benefit.
money, goods, and status

6.       
Rational
choice theory
Assumes that individuals will operate in rational way and will seek to benefit themselves in the life choices they make


7.       
Structuralism
Denies any basis for humans being active, since human consciousness is
No longer seen as the basis of meaning in language
Underlying
structures;
language
Views societies as static and do not help very much in explaining variation among societies; treats culture as a given order and
fails to explain the adaptive dimensions of culture.
8.       
Post-
structuralism
Argues that humans cannot arrive anything they can confidently call the (universal) truth. There is
no link between the words
(language) ideas, and the real world


9.       
Post-
modernism
Argues power has become
Decentralized and fragmented in contemporary societies
Modernity;
post-
modernity;
subjective
reality
Denial of objective,
sociological
knowledge


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