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Introduction to History of Teacher Education in China

Introduction to History of Teacher Education in China


Chinese has a history and tradition of respecting teachers and adherence to education since ancient times. Teacher training in China has only a history of 100 years.
Before 1904: introduced ideas from other countries. Some ideas and ideas about teacher training in other countries (European countries, US and Japan) have been gradually introduced into China.
1904-1921: learned from Japan
Normal schools: primary education teachers
Teacher colleges: secondary education teachers
1922-1927: learned from the USA
Common schools and regular high schools are encouraged to enter extensive secondary schools.
Teaching colleges have become independent universities or faculties and departments of universities.
1928-1949: Discovered in a difficult time and manner
Normal schools have become independent again.
There were only institutions for training in secondary school teachers in 1922-1937: Beijing Normal University, Normal University of Beijing Women.
1949-1966: learned from Russia
There are two types of higher education teacher training faculties:
·         Most normal (educational) colleges and normal junior colleges are upgraded to universities.
·         Normal secondary schools were abolished from the beginning of the 21st century and some were upgraded to junior colleges or universities.
Teacher education providers in China
At present, teacher training is provided in China by universities, especially at regular universities.
There are 6 normal universities under MOE.
• Beijing Normal University
• Eastern Chinese Normal University
• Northeast China Normal University
• Central China Normal University
• Southwest University
• Shanxi Normal University
There are more than 30 normal universities in China that are supervised by local education authorities from each province .Usually we call this type of universities: local normal universities. They play an important role in the release of teachers for school education in each province of China.
Teacher education models in China
At the undergraduate level:
▲ "2 + 2" model: 1st-2nd academic year: professional knowledge studying;
3rd-4th academic year: practice teaching skills.
▲ "2.5 + 1.5" model: first 2.5 years: the emphasis is on the subject
study (including some teaching);
past 1.5 years: focus on education training,
Practical training is the most important point.
▲ "3 + 1" model: 1st-3rd academic year: topic and education information
theory of study;
Fourth academic year: conducting teaching
At the post-doctor level:
▲ "4 + 2" model: 1st-4th academic year: learning knowledge
(Bachelor of the subject);
Fifth 6th academic year: teaching practice skills
(Master of education).
Beijing Normal University uses this model to train research-based teachers for secondary schools, especially primary secondary schools.
Curriculum framework of teacher education
Subject knowledge is emphasized in more than pedagogical knowledge according to the framework of the Chinese educational curriculum.
Curriculum structure of pre-service teacher training at undergraduate level Zhejiang Normal University All curricula can be divided into 3 parts:
General education
Subject knowledge
Pedagogy & teaching training
Part I: General Education

Curricula category
Curricula module
Credit
General education (obligatory)
Political theory
16
Information technology  
4-6
University foreign language
12
University Physical
4
University Chinese literature  
2
Higher mathematics
3-10
Career planning and employment guidance for college students
2
General education (elective)
History and culture  
6-12

Culture and arts
Economy and society
Science and society
Well-being and life
Total

49-64

Part II : subject knowledge
Curricula category
Curricula module
Credit
Discipline basic curriculum 

35-50
Subject core curriculum
  Subject oriented & development curriculum
Subject oriented curricular
>  30

Subject development curricular
Practical segment
Graduation dissertation design  

6-10
Major practice
4-12
Social practice of political theory
2
Military theory & military training
2
Total

79-106

Part III: pedagogy & teaching training
Curricula category
Curricula module
Credit
Educational theory and psychology
pedagogy
2
Educational psychology
2
Psychological consultation of secondary school students
2
Educational philosophy
2
Educational sociology
2
Teacher ethnics / Educational history at home and abroad
2
Discipline pedagogical theory
2
Lectures about educational reform
1
Theory about teacher professional development
2
Educational administration & educational research
Class management
2
School organization and administration
2
Educational research methods
2
Research on discipline standards and teaching material of secondary school
2
Curriculum development
3
Teaching skills and methods
Modem educational technology theory and application
3
language skill of teachers
1
Handwriting skill
1
Microteaching and teaching diagnosis
1
Teaching strategy and teaching design
2
Case teaching's theory and method
2
Teaching practice
Teaching novitiate
2
Teaching practice
7
Teaching research
1
Total

52

Teaching practice in local normal universities
In comparison with other normal universities in China, Zhejiang Normal University provides more emphasis on training students practice skills.
Students participate in 9 weeks of educational training and 3 weeks of educational research.
Educational research: when students are teaching at school, their performance is taken by a video recorder. When they complete their training and return to the college of schools, they are watching these videos to make the team reflection and discussion.
• Practice center for teacher training (TEPTC)
• We have established the Training Center for Practical Teacher Training Practices (TEPTC) to improve student didactic skills.
• Each year, 2,500 undergraduate students will have an assessment (including the design of the study strategy, course making, handwriting, mandatory pronunciation and so on) in the middle. If the student does not pass the assessment, he / she can not go to an educational practice and can not obtain a Bachelor's degree and graduation diploma.

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