Basic structure of computer

The computer is one of the wonderful inventions of recent times. It grew up with the original purpose of using the computer. It is currently used in all layers of the population. Applications are from simple data entry to complex global electronic commerce, and online training in technological development. Because of the invention, the power of the computer has grown rapidly. Strange enough, the cost of hardware has decreased by the year. A large number of software package packages are now available to make computers very productive, versatile and user-friendly. Charles Babbage gave the basic structure of computers in detailed illustrations of his Analytical Engine. This machine has a milling machine to process data, a control to control operations and a store to temporarily handle data and processing results. The anatomy of computers, PCs and supercomputers is in fact both. Let's see how these components are organized into a computer system.
The computer is designed to perform instructions for data processing. It has components for receiving inputs, processing inputs and communicating outputs to users. The system is organized according to the following.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The CPU is the most important part of a computer. It usually consists of a control unit, an arithmetic and logical unit and a primary storage. The CPU is the brain of a computer and all processing takes place on the CPU. It has an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) to perform arithmetic and logical operations. It has a control unit that includes CPU activity and primary memory for primary storage.
The CPU (central processing unit) forms the heart of every embedded system and of every PC. It consists of ALU (arithmetic logic unit), responsible for the number of crunches, and the CU (control unit), responsible for determining the order and branching. Modern microprocessors and micro-controllers offer a single CPU chip and various levels of additional components such as counters, co-processor timers, watchdogs, SRAM (static RAM) and Flash ROM. The hardware can be described in many different levels, from low-level transistors to high-quality hardware description languages ​​(HDLs). The so-called moving transition level lies somewhat between the description of the CPU components and their interaction at a high level. We will use this level in this chapter to gradually introduce more complex components that we will use to create a complete CPU. With the Retro simulation system we can actually program, execute and test our CPUs. One of the best analogies for a CPU is, in my opinion, a mechanical clock mechanism. A large number of parts interact with each other, according to the rhythm of a central oscillator, each part having to move exactly at the right moment.


  1. Thank you for sharing your knowledge regarding the computers which all are designed for our generic use and with the embedded software development you can design for the specific functions.


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