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Computer storage and its function

Computer storage and its function


Storage is a process whereby digital data is stored in a data storage device via computer technology. Storage is a mechanism that allows a computer to keep track of data, temporarily or permanently. The storage can also be referred to as data storage or electronic data storage. Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology that consists of computer components and media recordings used to maintain digital data. It is a basic function and main component of computers.
Computer storage can be divided into primary storage and secondary storage. The primary storage or the main memory of the computer provides instant access to storage. The processor has direct access to data and instructions. Frequently used files and programs are stored in the main memory. Because primary storage is expensive, only a limited amount can be stored there. The memory cache is another memory device. The CPU has faster access than the main memory. But it is very expensive. Secondary storage is used for multiple data storage and instructions. Large files and databases are stored in secondary storage devices. These devices contain a hard disk, optical disc, magnetic tapes and floppy disks. Data and instructions from second-hand storage devices are transferred to small quantities in the main memory and the cache to access them for processing.
The magnetic core technology and semiconductor technology are used to create the main memory of a computer system. But today, semiconductor technology is widely used. The main memory consists of memory cells. Each of them can store a piece of data. This memory consists of electronic components called semiconductor chips. Each chip contains several hundred thousand transistors; each transistor represents the binary state of a bit; on or off. Since a bit can store only one value, either 1 'or 0, the pieces are combined into sets of eight bits called bytes. One byte can store a data character. The memory locations are numbered 0.1,2,3 ... the unique number assigned to each location is called the address. The memory is measured in kilobytes (KB) (ie 210 or 1024 bytes, roughly as 1000 bytes) and megabytes (MB) (ie 220 or nearly 1,000,000 bytes). Gigabytes (GB) and Terrabytes (TB) are the other units of measurement for storage. The main memory of a computer is measured in terms of two features, namely the capacity and speed of access.
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