Vygotsky Socio-cultural Theory

Vygotsky’s Background
·        "Mozarts psychology"
·        Lev Semonovich Vygotsky was born in Western Russia on November 5, 1986. His father, Semi L'vovich, founded the Society of Education in Gomel, and possessed a wide range of active interests, including foreign languages, history, literature, theater and art. His mother was taught as a teacher.
·        In 1917 he graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law.
·        Vygotsky completed 270 scientific articles, many, lectures and 10 books based on a wide range of Marxist and mental theories.
·        He is considered a successful psychologist and much of his work has been discovered and explored today.
·        Vygotsky Theory is that social interaction is very important in the development of cognitive.
·        Not focused on an individual child, but in the child as a product of social interaction, especially in adults.
·        Focus on dynamic relationships rather than the child.
·        People who think are different between cultures because different cultures emphasize different things.
Main Principles
1.      The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)

·        Relates to someone with a better understanding or a higher level of competence than a student. Usually it is thought that it is a teacher, a trainer or an older adult, but the MKO can also be a colleague, a younger, even computer.
·        MKO refers to a person with a better understanding or a higher level of competence than a student, about a specific task, process or concept.
o   Examples: teachers, other adults, advanced students, sometimes even computers.
·        Often, child or adult peers can be individuals with more knowledge or experience.
o   For example: who can learn more about the latest music-teen group, how to become the last Black Ops game or what are the latest dance movements, a child or their parents?
2.         Social Interaction
·        Vygotsky feels that social studies rely on development. He said: "Each child's cultural development function will appear twice: first, at the social level, and later, at the individual level, first, between people (interpsychologically) and then is in the child (intrapsychologically). "
·        He believes children are different and actively involved in their own learning process and the discovery and development of new perspectives.
3.  Zone of Proximal Development
·        Vygotsky is most recognized for its concept of the Zone of Proximal Development or ZPD about children's learning. Children who are in the proximal development zone for a particular task can perform the task almost freely, but are not yet fully present. With the appropriate amount of help, however, children can successfully complete the task.
·         The difference between what the child can do alone and another guide can be.
·        This is an important concept with regard to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve when accompanying and strengthening a specialized partner. According to Vygotsky, it happens here.
·        Vygotsky sees the ZPD as a place where it can give the most sensitive instruction or guidance, allowing the child to develop the skills that they themselves will use, thereby developing higher mental functions.
Two Features of ZPD
       I.            Scaffolding
·        The concept of scaffolding by Vygotsky is closely linked to the concept of the zone of proximal development. The scaffold refers to the temporary support given to a child of More Knowledge to Others, usually parents or teachers, allowing the child to perform a task until the child has completed the task independently.
·        Suitable assistance from the teacher to help the student accomplish a task.
·        It takes an instructor to show an example of how to solve a problem while managing the learning environment, so that students can do things step by step to expand their knowledge without much frustration .
·        Support more capable peers or adults to carry out the work successfully
·        Scaffolding instruction allows students to switch to ZPD
·        Modeling; feedback; teaching; in question; encouragement; developing the task; tears; solve the problem
·        The scaffold was gradually removed
II.     Reciprocal Teaching
·        A very successful teaching method, it offers an atmosphere of open conversation between the student and the teacher that goes beyond a simple question and answer session.