UNIT: 4


Classroom tests play a central role in the assessment of student learning. Tests provide relevant measures of many important learning outcomes and indirect evidence concerning others. They make expected learning outcomes explicit to students and parents and show what types of performance are valued. The validity of the information they provide, however, depends on the care that goes into the planning and preparation of tests. The main goal of classroom testing is to obtain valid, reliable and useful information concerning assessment. This requires determining what is to be measured and then defining it precisely so that tasks that evoke the desired performance can be constructed.
In a standard based approach to education and training, informed by Constructivist theory, assessment informed instruction is the expectation as is continuous improvement. One of the most widely used tools in assessment and evaluation is the traditional or classic classroom achievement test, whether the classroom is on- or offline. These measures are often fraught with reliability and validity problems as the process for constructing such tests is often not followed or misunderstood, thereby introducing
significant measurement error into the measurement process. Poor measurement frequently leads to inaccurate data-based inferences, which in turn leads to bad decision making. Moreover classroom tests and assessment can be used for a variety of instructional purposes such examining the quality of teaching learning process, students achievement individually and success of institution overall.


Selection Type Items

There are four types of test items in selection category of test which are in common use. They are multiple-choice, matching, true-false, and completion items.
1. Multiple-choice Questions

Multiple-choice test items consist of a stem or a question and three or more alternative answers (options) with the correct answer sometimes called the keyed response and the incorrect answers called distracters. This form is generally better than the incomplete stem because it is simpler and more natural.

2. True-False Questions

A True-False test item requires the student to determine whether a statement is true or false. The chief disadvantage of this type is the opportunity for successful guessing.

According to Gronlund (1995) the alternative response test items that consists of a declaration statement that the pupil is asked to mark true or false, right or wrong, correct or incorrect, yes or no, fact or opinion, agree or disagree and the like. In each case there are only two possible answers. Because the true-false option is the most common, this type is mostly refers to true-false type. Students make a designation about the validity of the statement. Also known as a “binary-choice” item because there are only two options to select from. These types of items are more effective for assessing knowledge, comprehension, and application outcomes as defined in the cognitive domain of Blooms’ Taxonomy of educational objectives.

3. Matching Items:

According to Cunningham (1998), the matching items consist of two parallel columns. The column on

the left contains the questions to be answered, termed premises; the column on the right, the answers, termed responses. The student is asked to associate each premise with a response to form a matching pair.

4. Completion Items

Like true-false items, completion items are relatively easy to write. Perhaps the first tests classroom teachers’ construct and students take completion tests. Like items of all other formats, though, there are good and poor completion items. Student fills in one or more blanks in a statement. These are also known as “Gap-Fillers.” Most effective for assessing knowledge and comprehension learning outcomes but can be written for higher level outcomes.


The aviation instructor is able to determine the students' level of generalized knowledge of a subject through the use of supply-type questions. There are four types of test items in supply type category of test. Commonly these are completion items, short answers, restricted response and extended response (essay type comprises the restricted and extended responses).
1. Short Answer:

Student supplies a response to a question that might consistent of a single word or phrase. Most effective for assessing knowledge and comprehension learning outcomes but can be written for higher level outcomes.

2. Essay questions

Essay questions are supply or constructed response type questions and can be the best way to measure the students' higher order thinking skills, such as applying, organizing, synthesizing, integrating, evaluating, or projecting while at the same time providing a measure of writing skills. The student has to formulate and write a response, which may be detailed and lengthy.

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