Classroom assessment, involves students and teachers in the continuous monitoring of students' learning. It provides faculty with feedback about their effectiveness as teachers, and it gives students a measure of their progress as learners. Most important, because classroom assessments are created, administered, and analyzed by teachers themselves on questions of teaching and learning that are important to them, the likelihood that instructors will apply the results of the assessment to their own teaching is greatly enhances.

The classroom assessment process assumes that students need to receive feedback early and often, that they need to evaluate the quality of their own learning, and that they can help the teacher improve the strength of instruction. Assessment is integral to the teaching–learning process, facilitating student learning and improving instruction, and can take a variety of forms. Classroom assessment is generally divided into three types: assessment for learning, assessment of learning and assessment as learning.

Classroom assessment is the process of collecting information from your students about their experience as learners in your class. There are many different ways of collecting information, depending on what you are teaching and what kind of information teacher need.
All types of assessment are based on the principle that the more clearly and specifically to understand how students are learning, the more effectively teacher can teach them. When assessing the classroom, some issues to consider are how to allow all students to contribute, how to respond to the student feedback, and how often to collect feedback.
For this purpose teacher uses different modes such as test and techniques for assessing:

(a)    course-related knowledge and skills;

(b)   learner attitudes, values, and self-awareness; and

(c)    learner reactions to teachers and teaching.

 Classroom assessment test and techniques are formative evaluation methods that serve two purposes. They can help you to assess the degree to which your students understand the course content and they can provide information about the effectiveness of teaching learning process.

1.  Achievement Tests:

Achievement tests are widely used throughout education as a method of assessing and comparing student performance. Achievement tests may assess any or all of reading, math, and written language as well as subject areas such as science and social studies.
These tests are available to assess all grade levels and through adulthood. The test procedures are highly structured so that the testing process is the same for all students who take them.

2. Aptitude tests  

Aptitude tests assume that individuals have inherent strengths and weaknesses, and are naturally inclined toward success or failure in certain areas based on their inherent characteristics.
Aptitude tests determine a person's ability to learn a given set of information. They do not test a person's knowledge of existing information. The best way to prepare for aptitude tests is to take practice tests.

3.  Attitude

Attitude is a posture, action or disposition of a figure or a statue. A mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related.
Attitude is the state of mind with which you approach a task, a challenge, a person, love, life in general. The definition of attitude is “a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways”. These beliefs and feelings are different due to various interpretations of the same events by various people and these differences occur due to the earlier mentioned inherited characteristics’.

4. Intelligence Tests

Intelligence involves the ability to think, solve problems, analyze situations, and understand social values, customs, and norms.

Two main forms of intelligence are involved in most intelligence assessment:
· Verbal Intelligence is the ability to comprehend and solve language-based problems; and
· Nonverbal Intelligence is the ability to understand and solve visual and spatial problems

Intelligence test is often defined as a measure of general mental ability. Of the standardized intelligence tests, those developed by David Wechsler are among those most widely used. Wechsler defined intelligence as “the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.”

5.  Personality Tests

Your personality is what makes you who you are. It's that organized set of unique traits and characteristics that makes you different from every other person in the world. Not only does your personality make you special, it makes you!?
“The particular pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and contexts, and differentiates one person from another.”


1.      Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case.

2.      Observation

An observation is information about objects, events, moves, attitudes and phenomena using directly one or more senses. Observation can be defined as the visual study of something or someone in order to gain information or learn about behaviour, trends, or changes. This then allows us to make informed decisions, adjustments, and allowances based on what has been studied. Observation is a basic but important aspect of learning from and interacting with our environment. Observation is an important part of learning how to teach. Much of what beginner teachers need to be aware of cannot be learned solely in the class. Therefore classroom observation presents an opportunity to see real-life teachers in real-life teaching situations. 

3.      Interview

A conversation in which one person (the interviewer) elicits information from another person (the subject or interviewee). A transcript or account of such a conversation is also called an interview.  

          4.        Rating Scale:

A rating scale is a tool used for assessing the performance of tasks, skill levels, procedures, processes, qualities, quantities, or end products, such as reports, drawings, and computer programs. These are judged at a defined level within a stated range. Rating scales are similar to checklists except that they indicate the degree of accomplishment rather than just yes or no. Hence rating scale used to determine the degree to which the child exhibits a behaviour or the quality of that behavior; each trait is rated on a
continuum, the observer decides where the child fits on the scale overall rating scale focuses on:
• Make a qualitative judgment about the extent to which a behavior is present
• Consist of a set of characteristics or qualities to be judged by using a systematic
Numerical and graphic rating scales are used most frequently.

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