UNIT-4 Curriculum development at Secondary Level in Pakistan (0827)

 UNIT  4

Curriculum development at Secondary Level in Pakistan

What is curriculum?

Curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. Curriculum is not a course, is not a syllabus. Its the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college.


 The term curriculum has been derived from a Latin word „Currere‟ which means a „race course‟ or a runway on which one runs to reach a goal. If the teacher is the guide, the curriculum is the path. Curriculum is the total structure of ideas and activities.


All the learning activities which are planned and guided by the school ,whether they are carried out in groups or individually ,inside and outside the school- kerr (1968).

Curriculum is tool in the hand of the artist (teacher) to mould his material in accordance with his ideals in the school – Cunningham .

 “A course especially the course of study in a university”. Dictionary

“All the experience of pupil which has undertaken in the guidance of the school”. Bland’s Encyclopedia

Curriculum theory

Theory is a description of those structures that generate observable phenomena. George Beauchamp has asserted that all theories are derived from three broad categories of knowledge: the humanities; the natural sciences; and the social sciences.

These divisions of knowledge are well established as the basic realms of knowledge. A curriculum theory is a set of related educational concepts that affords a systematic and illuminating perspective of curricular phenomena .

Curriculum Development

It is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community.

    Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development 

    ·        Continue to promote the objective of elementary education.     

    ·        Discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of students in order to equip them with skills for productive endeavor. 

    ·        to prepare students’ for tertiary schooling. 

    ·        Promotion of identity. 

    ·        Promotion of national identity. 

    ·        Cultural, moral and spiritual identity. 

    ·        Leadership skills. 

    ·        Promotion of research and respond to change the society.

Curriculum development approaches

Subject centered approach

Emphasis to complete subject matter .Number of lectures / number of topics / number of hours are assigned           

Learner centered approach

Emphasis on fulfilling the needs of learner. Students will be active and responsible participants in their own learning. Strengthens student motivation, promotes peer communication, builds studentteacher relationships and promotes active learning.

Be learner oriented 

    Student decides on 

    ·        Learning objectives 

    ·        Course contents 

    ·        Methods to be used to achieve objectives 

    ·        Learning resources 

    ·        Sequence and pace of learning. 

    ·        Time of Assessment

Problem solving approach

Emphasis on ability of learner to solve a given problem,Involves subject as well as learner centered approach

Humanistic Approach

Rooted in the progressive philosophy and child-centered movement. Considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum.Considers the whole child and believes that in curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration. The LEARNER is at the CENTER of the curriculum.

Evaluation of the Curriculum

Curriculum has to be evaluated only at the end, but during the process it also be carried on.  This evaluation is of two types:


This evaluation is carried on during the process of the curriculum function. This evaluation is most important. This will help us in correcting the deviations from the expected outcome and is a continuous process.


This is evaluation done at the end of a planned activity. This concerns itself with the product of teaching-learning process.

Determination of Curriculum

We take certain factors into consideration that have a bearing upon the curriculum:

    Curriculum Development: The FIRE Paradigm.The parameters of curriculum development are fully revealed in the FIRE paradigm as the letters stand for 

    ·        formulation, 

    ·        implementations, 

    ·        research and 

    ·        evaluation

FIRE is a word with many dynamic connotations. They are to provide light, to warm, to cook and to ignite, but you may readily add others.

Before 18th Amendment

Before 'The Eighteenth Constitutional Amendment Act 2010' (GOP, 2010). The 'Federal Supervision of Curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976' empowered Federal Ministry of Education [MOE] to supervise the educational matters present on the concurrent list.

National Bureau of Curriculum and textbooks [NBCT], working under the Federal MOE, was a nominated 'competent authority for performing the following functions from primary to higher secondary level: Develop curricula, scheme of studies, and manuscripts of textbooks, Approve Textbooks' manuscripts,

Modify/improve/ correct the curriculum and the textbooks or reference materials.

Curriculum Bodies at-Primary and Secondary Levels

IN PUNJAB : PUNJAB CURRICULUM and TEXTBOOK BORAD [formerly PUNJAB CURRICULUM AUTHORTY (PCA), Punjab Textbook Board) is responsible to develop curriculum for Punjab Province.

IN SINDH BUREAU OF CURRICULUM AND EXTENSION WING (BCEW) is responsible for develop curriculum for Sindh Province

IN KPK: DIRECTORATE OF CURRICULUM AND TEACHER EDUCATION(CTE) is responsible for develop curriculum for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.

IN BALOCHISTAN: No Curriculum body its in process

IN ICT, FATA, FANA and AJK: CURRICULUM WING is responsible for the develop curriculum for these Areas.

        Development Process 

    ·        Situational Analysis

    o   (Need Analysis/ availability of resources) 

    ·        Development of Standards (Top down approach) 

    ·        Development of Benchmarks. 

    ·        Selection of themes (Scheme of studies) 

    ·        Development of Student learning Outcomes 

    ·        Recommendations/suggestions for resources 

    ·        Teaching strategies 

    ·        Assessment 

 Principles of curriculum construction


New trends in Curriculum Development

 Digital Diversity

 Present age is an age of ICT technology has touched to all the wakes of human life. To survive in the concern field, it is necessary for everyone to have a knowledge and skill of technology. Education makes man enable to contribute, it strengthens the capabilities.

  Need based Curriculums

    Researches in all the fields resulted in to specialization. Need based curriculum is the foremost need of the present education system. 

         21st century skills

    All the curriculums of various courses should focus on 21st century skills. Skills like Collaboration, critical thinking, effective communication, multitasking stress management, empathy are must for all the personals.

    International Understanding

        Globalization has made converted the world in to global village. We should consider world as a one family and for this international understanding must be inculcate through curriculum 


    E-learning is sometimes known as online learning or electronic learning. It is the acquirement of information that takes place through electronic technologies and media. It refers to a course, program or diploma that is delivered online. 

      Massive Open Online Courses

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are free online courses that offer to enroll anyone. MOOCs provide an affordable and flexible way to learn new skills, advance your career, and deliver high quality educational experiences at scale. MOOC is a model for offering online learning content to anyone who wants to take a course, with no limit to participation.

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