Unit- 5 Evaluation (0827)


Unit 5



Education is considered as an investment in human beings in terms of development of human resources, skills, motivation, knowledge and the like. Evaluation helps to

build an educational programme, assess its achievements and improve upon its effectiveness.


 Gronlund and Linn: Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which pupils are achieving instructional objectives.

Perhaps the most extended definition of evaluation has been supplied by C.E. Beeby (1977), who described evaluation as “the systematic collection and interpretation of evidence leading as a part of process to a judgement of value with a view to action.”

Key Elements

(i) Systematic collection of evidence.

(ii) Its interpretation.

(iii) Judgement of value.

(iv) With a view to action.

Evaluation at Secondary level

Evaluation in Secondary School Student final evaluation is administered in order to give students certificates.  This kind of evaluation is conducted nationally in order to assess the quality of education in order to develop and improve the high school.

Evaluation in Secondary School

Student final evaluation is administered in order to give students certificates. This kind of evaluation is conducted nationally in order to assess the quality of education in order to develop and improve the high school. The evaluation of curriculum implementation is conducted to assess the relevance between school curriculum and the basis, function, and objectives (of the school as well as the national education), and the students’ ability, and the demand for societal changes.


The evaluation of secondary school as a whole unit is conducted to assess the management of educational activities. This kind of evaluation includes institutional aspects, curriculum, students, teachers and other educational professionals, facilities and infrastructure, administration, and conditions of the school in general.  Evaluation findings will be used to improve the schools and determine accreditation level.


The evaluators are teachers, school principals, supervisors, and other educational professionals. Teachers are obliged to assess students’ learning activities and progress as well as curriculum implementation under their authority and responsibility. School principals are obliged to assess and guide the curriculum implementation, teachers and other educational professionals, and utilization of the facilities and infrastructure under their authority and responsibility

Formative& Summative Evaluation

Formative evaluations are used in an iterative process to make improvements before production. Summative evaluations are used to evaluate a shipped product in comparison to a benchmark.

Assessment & Evaluation (National Education Policy) 1

 Assessment items and question banks in school subjects for Classes IX-XII will be developed by the end of the year for monitoring the teaching-learning process and the achievement of the child. This will ensure uniform quality and standards. Autonomy will be given to the Examination Boards and Research and Development (R&D) Cells will be established in each Board to improve the system.      Mechanism shall be developed to integrate internal and external assessment and evaluation. Extensive in-service training programs for teachers shall be conducted in assessment techniques.

Internal assessment shall be properly moderated. Moderated marks/grades for internal assessment shall be reported separately either on the certificate or as a part of a composite assessment. Gradual resort to improved testing instruments for Classes IX and X and XI & XII to prevent and minimize unfair means. For this purpose- the present structure of examination papers will be reviewed. The share of standardized test items will be gradually increased.

The present system of objective questions, which are not objective in any sense, shall be gradually discontinued and replaced by a more scientific method. A uniform schedule for holding the Board examinations and announcing the results and admissions etc shall be adopted.


Textbooks are widely accepted as a common feature of classrooms worldwide and are important vehicles for the promotion of curricula.  Consequently their content and structure are very important for the promotion of a specific vision of curriculum.

Evaluation process in education system

At present, 3 types of examination systems are being used in Pakistan: semester without external evaluation, semester with external evaluation, and annual with external evaluation. The first is being practiced in all private and few public sector institutions, whereas the latter 2 are in use in most of the public sector and a few private institutes affiliated with public-sector universities. The grading scheme in all these systems is quite dissimilar.


A good examination system whether annual or semester, indicates what is taught and how it is taught.  Moreover, evaluation outcomes allow teachers to tailor teaching strategies and methodologies that may improve both teaching and learning.  Presently, such goals are a daydream, particularly in public sector institutes.

Examination Reforms: Test development and research

Examinations can be divided as internal ,  external (public)

Internal exams are directly conducted under supervision of school administration, Matriculation and Intermediate exams are conducted by BISE.Almost 11 BISE are in operation.

Examination promotion and certification

}  Examining bodies are Universities and BISEs

}  At each terminal point Matric, Intermediate, BS,BA, MA certificates, or degrees are issued.

}  Some universities and educational institutions follow conventional pattern of grading division while others GPAs.

Weaknesses and shortcomings

Examinations are inevitable despite the fact that no one has ever expressed an unqualified liking for them.  Examinations being a test of ability provide tangible proof of fitness of a student for higher classes. Sir Winston Churchill calls examination “the inhospitable regions” through which every learner is destined to journey during the course of his academic career. Examinations based on clarity, brevity and transparency guard the students against wasting time and being verbose. But the present examination system is a stumbling to genuine learning of the youth.  Examinations require “cram and dump” engagement which according to Meyer obviously involves short-term memory and inhibits creativity. If education guarantees enlightenment then ill-conducted examination, sub-standard evaluation and cheating sap the vitality and potential of examinees. 

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