Foundations of Education (831)
Unit 1: Islamic Foundations of Education
The first and the most authentic source of knowledge About Allah’s commands is Allah’s Book i.e. The Holy Quran. The Holy Quran is the last divine book of Allah Almighty which was revealed upon the last Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W) during the period of 23 years gradually and according to needs and demands arising time to time. This is very noble and sacred book containing a message of guidance covering all aspect of human life. It is preserved in its complete and comprehensive form. Being the students of commerce and business management this Holy Book provides us, basic principles of over worships and transactions.
For example: the basic guiding principles laid down in the Holy Quran:
· Permission to use lawful things and prohibited of unlawful things.
· Moderate spending.
· All transaction must be put into writing.
· Proscription of usury and gambling.
· Trade with mutual consent on contractual basic is lawful.
· Obligation to pay Zakat (poor’s due).
· The law of inheritance and several other rules are discus in The Holy Quran.
· These basic principles are unalterable and absolute.
Hadith derives its authority and validity from Holy Quran. Quran says “Obey God and Obey the Messenger” (4:59). Thus, Hadith offers best explanation or interpretation to Quran. Ahadith are not only explanatory to the Quranic text but also complementary to it. In the words of Quran “Prophet (PBUH) never spoke of his own will unless it was a revelation revealed to him” (53: 3-4). These verses declare Prophet (PBUH) as a teacher appointed by Allah who not only teaches the Book and Philosophy but purifies the soul as well.
TYPES OF SUNNAH
A. Qawli (verbal): consists of the sayings of the Prophet (SAW) on any subject. Example: “He who cheats is not one of us”.
B. Taqiri (Approval): consists of the approval of the Prophet (SAW). If something was done in front of him (SAW) and he (SAW) didn’t approve of it, then it is considered an approval. As an example, the Prophet (SAW) approved the way women prayed in the mosque, separate from the men, but in the same room.
C. Faili (Actions) consists of the Prophet (SAW)’s deeds and practices, such as the way he (SAW) used to pray or perform Hajj. The following paragraphs address the actions of the Prophet (SAW) and their legislative impact.
TYPES OF SUNNAH
Messenger (SAW) can be divided into three parts. The first section consists of those actions which were natural to him as a human being, secondly, actions which were specific to him as a Prophet (SAW), and thirdly, actions which carry legislative impact.
Linguistically, Fiqh implies having knowledge in depth. As a juristic term, Fiqh has two meanings:
A. Having the knowledge of the rulings of Shariah (Islamic Law) which are extracted from the legislative sources. As an example, a Faqih would know the ruling for the issue of abortion; in addition, he would know how and from where this ruling was extracted.
B. All the Islamic laws. This definition is synonymous to the term Shariah.
The Sources of Islamic Law ( Fiqh)
Adopting specific sources to derive laws is a major subject in Usul al Fiqh. The Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma as Sahabah (consensus of the Companions) and Qiyas (analogical deduction) are four sources in Islam which are accepted by almost all of the scholars. However, there are other additional sources such as Maslaha al Mursalah (benefit) or Ijma al Ummah (consensus of the Ummah) which are not widely accepted.
The linguistic meaning of Qiyas is measurement. As a juristic term Qiyas is the extension of a Sharia ruling from an original case to a new case because of the equivalence of the causes underlying them (Illa).
Steps to Strengthen the Islamic Foundations of Education
· Substantial material on Islam and ideology of Pakistan in different programmes, courses and subjects
· Status of Islamiyat as compulsory subject
· 20 marks awarded to Hafiz e Quran students on merit
· Inclusion of this foundation in the national professional standards for teachers as standard No. 3 i.e. knowledge of Islamic ethical values and social life skills
3-A: Knowledge and Understanding
Teachers know and understand:
· The Islamic code of conduct (beliefs, prayers, and ethics) in light of Quran and Sunnah.
· The values which are globally accepted and are being promoted.
· The present need of national/ global peace, and the factors affecting peace and resulting in decline of the values and ethics.
· Essential principles of Islamic values in the textbooks.
Teachers give value and are committed to:
· Bring awareness among people that ‘Quran’ and ‘Sunna’ are the only valid sources for knowing about Islamic values in true sense.
· Tolerance and celebration of diversity.
· Dialogue as a means to conflict resolution.
3-C: Performance and Skills
Teachers engage in activities to:
· Create a safe and secure learning environment.
· Practice Islamic code of conduct by their own behaviors and guiding through a convincing dialogue with learners to value and practice the ethical and Islamic values.
· Practice Islamic teachings in classrooms and schools to prevent the misunderstandings that can lead to the mis-characterization and even demonization of Islam and other faiths.